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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


GREAT REVIEW ARTICLE: Reynolds, T., and Dweck, A. C. (1999). Aloe vera leaf gel: A review update. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 68, 3-37. 

Abstract: Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas. Treatment of inflammation is still the key effect for most types of healing but it is now realized that this is a complex process and that many of its constituent processes may be addressed in different ways by different gel components. A common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe 6era, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents. There have also been, however, persistent reports of active glycoprotein fractions from both Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. There are also cautionary investigations warning of possible allergic effects on some patients. Reports also describe antidiabetic, anticancer and antibiotic activities, so we may expect to see a widening use of aloe gel. Several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for use as itself or in formulations and there may be moves towards isolating and eventually providing verified active ingredients in dosable quantities.

MUST READ ARTICLE: International Aloe Science Council. (2013, August 25). IASC debunks CSPI aloe warning.

Abstract: The International Aloe Science Council (IASC) responded to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) recent news release telling consumers to avoid taking aloe vera orally, with what IASC executive director, Devon Powell, called "some simple facts." Recently published studies on consumer products showed no carcinogenic effects. Purified (decolorized) aloe vera: no known carcinogenic concerns according to internationally recognized cancer organization. The vast majority of aloe vera products for oral consumption are decolorized or purified. The NTP test article is chemically distinct from what is found in consumer products for oral consumption.


Abo-Youssef, A. M. H., and Messiha, B. A. S. (2013). Beneficial effects of Aloe vera in treatment of diabetes: Comparative in vivo and in vitro studies. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 51, 7-11. 

Abstract: In the present investigation, the antidiabetic effect of Aloe vera leaf pulp extract was studied in vivo and in vitro as compared to glimiperide. Diabetes was induced experimentally in adult male albino rats by single-dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The in vitro study was performed using isolated islets of pancreas from adult female albino rats. Both aloe extract (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and glimiperide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased serum glucose and significantly increased serum insulin levels as compared to control diabetic rats. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly decreased while blood glutathione (GSH) was significantly increased by aloe treatment as compared to diabetic rats. Effect of aloe was better than the effect of glimiperide. Regarding the in vitro study, both aloe (10 µl/l) and glimiperide (10 µmol/l) significantly increased both basal and stimulated insulin secretion from the isolated islets of pancreas as compared to control. These results show a promising antidiabetic effect of aloe for further clinical trials regarding clinical use of aloe extract for treating type II diabetes.

Afzal, M., Ali, M., Hassan, R. A. H., Sweedan, N., and Dhami, M. S. I. (1991). Identification of some prostanoids in Aloe vera extracts. Planta Medica, 57, 38-40.

Abstract: Screening of extracts from Aloe vera revealed the presence of endogenous arachidonic acid, a potential precursor for the prostanoids synthesis. Possible importance of prostaglandins formed endogenously by the plant is discussed.

Agarwal, O. P. (1985, August). Prevention of atheromatous heart disease. Angiology,36(8), 485-492.

Abstract: Five thousand patients of atheromatous heart disease, presented as angina pectoris, were studied over a period of five years. After adding the "Husk of Isabgol" and "Aloe vera: (an indigenous plant known as ghee-guar-ka-paththa) to the diet, a marked reduction in total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting and post-parandial blood sugar level in diabetic patients, total lipids and also increase in HDL were noted. Simultaneously the clinical profile of these patients showed reduction in the frequency of anginal attacks and gradually, the drugs, like verapamil, nifedipine, beta-blockers and nitrates, were tapered. The patients, most benefitted, were diabetics (without adding any anti-diabetic drug). The exact mechanism of the action of the above two substances is not known, but it appears that probably they act by their high fiber contents. Both of these substances need further evaluation. The most interesting aspect of the study was that no untoward side effect was noted and all the five thousand patients are surviving till date.

Ahmadi, A. (2012, August). Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine, 18(8), 635-640.

Abstract: In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and anti-inflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immuno-modulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

Altincik, A., Sonmez, F., Yenisey, C., Duman, S., Can, A., Akev, N., Kirdar, S., and Sezak, M. (2015, January 30). Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 46(3), 22-327. 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Results: Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. Conclusion: It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.

American College of Toxicology. (2007, March). Final report on the safety assessment of aloe. International Journal of Toxicology, 26, 2 suppl, 1-50. 

Abstract: Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongen-sis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Ex-tract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations.

American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. (2014). Clinical Management Principles.

American Urological Association Foundation. (2005). A Basic Guide to Bladder Health: How Much Do You Know About Your Bladder?

Abstract: The study shows that percutaneous administration of Sulfur Mustard (SM) induces oxidative stress and oral administration of Aloe vera gel could only partially protect it. Topical application of Aloe vera gel may be beneficial for protecting the skin lesions induced by SM. The effect was marginal.

Arab, A. (2003, March 5). Health-Senegal: An ancient herbal medicine makes a comeback. Inter Press Service English News Wire.

Abstract: Reports on use and effect of Aloe vera by Senegalese.

Armstrong, W. D., Spink, Wesley W., and Kahnee, Jeanne. (1943). Antibacterial effects of quinones. Proceedings of Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 230-234.

Abstract: The present report presents quantitative data with respect to the required bacteriostatic and lethal concentrations of several quinones against two species of gram-positive pathogenic cocci.

Aryayev, N. L. (1976). Extract of Aloe: Scientific and clinical data. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen, 84-93.

Abstract: Gives properties of Aloe vera and discusses the use of Aloe in the treatment of various diseases.

Asadi-Shahmirzadi, A., Mozaffari, S., Sanei, Y., Baeeri, M., Hajiaghaee, R., Monsef-Esfahani, H.R., and Abdollahi, M. (2012, December 21). Benefit of Aloe vera and Matricaria recutita mixture in rat irritable bowel syndrome: Combination of antioxidant and spasmolytic effects. Chin J Integr Med. 

Abstract: To evaluate the beneficial effects of a mixture of Aloe vera (AV) and Matricaria recutita (German chamomile, GC) in an experimental model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Atherton, P.. (1997, June/July). Aloe vera: Myth or medicine? Positive Health. Issue 20.

Abstract: Author is convinced that there is enough evidence available now to suggest that the properties of this amazing plant should be properly tested, to prove whether or not there is just a myth or real medicine here.

Atiba, A., Nishimura, M., Kakinuma, S., Hiraoka, T., Goryo, M., Shimada, Y., Ueno, H., and Uzuka, Y. (2011). Aloe vera oral administration accelerates acute radiation-delayed wound healing by stimulating transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor production. The American Journal of Surgery, 201, 809-818. 

Abstract: Delayed wound healing is a significant clinical problem in patients who have had previous irradiation. This study investigated the effectiveness of Aloe vera (Av) on acute radiation-delayed wound healing. Methods: The effect of Av was studied in radiation-exposed rats compared with radiation-only and control rats. Skin wounds were excised on the back of rats after 3 days of local radiation. Wound size was measured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after wounding. Wound tissues were examined histologically and the expressions of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Wound contraction was accelerated significantly by Av on days 6 and 12 after wounding. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and the expression levels of TGF-β-1 and bFGF were significantly higher in the radiation plus Av group compared with the radiation-only group. Conclusions: These data showed the potential application of Av to improve the acute radiation-delayed wound healing by increasing TGF-β-1 and bFGF production.

Ayyangar, N. R., Bapat, D. S., and Joshi, B. S. (1961, October). Anthraquinone and anthrone series, Part XXVI: A new synthesis of chrysophanol, rhein, islandicin, emodin and physcion. J. Sci. Industr. Res.,20B, 9-13.

Abstract: A new general method for the synthesis of chrysophanol, rhein, islandicin, emodin and physcion, starting from common dye intermediates such as 1-amino-5-chloranthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, is described. Though a number of stages such as halogenation, deamination, replacement of halogen by hydroxyl, methoxylation and demethylation are involved in the synthesis, the reactions proceed without difficulty and good yields are obtained.

Babaee, N., Zabihi, E., Mohseni, S., and Moghadamnia, A. A. (2012, July). Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Dental Research Journal, 9(4), 381-385. 

Abstract: Background: Aphthous ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity with no known effective treatment so far, which could cause severe discomfort in patients. Aloe vera (A.V.) is a tropical plant with anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects, which could be of benefit in a diversity of wound healing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate topically administered A.V. gel on oral cavity minor aphthous healing. Materials and Methods: As a double-blind (case control) clinical trial, 40 patients with oral minor aphthous lesions were randomly allocated in either the case group (A.V. gel) or the control (placebo) group. The healing time (days after gel application), patient’s pain score; the lesion and its surrounding inflammation diameters were recorded for 2 weeks. The obtained results were analyzed by either “Fishers exact” or t-student test using SPSS software. Results: The mean (+SD) of patients’ age was 29.25 + 8.48 and 27.95 + 7.96 years in the control and A.V.-treated groups, respectively, which were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The duration of complete wound healing, pain score, wound size and inflammation zone diameter in the A.V.-treated group were significantly lower than the control group (P ≤ 0.05) on specific time points after treatment. Conclusion: It seems likely that A.V. 2% oral gel is not only effective in decreasing the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients’ pain score and wound size but also decreases the aphthous wound healing period.

Bahramsoltani, R., Farzaei, M. H., and Rahimi, R. (2014). Medicinal plants and their natural components as future drugs for the treatment of burn wounds: an integrative review. Arch Dermatol Res, 306, 601-617. 

Abstract: Burn wound healing is a complicated process including inflammation, re-epithelialization, granulation, neovascularization and wound contraction. Several biochemicals are involved in burn healing process including antioxidants, cytokines and liver and kidney damage bio-markers. Although several preparations are available for the management of burn wound, there is still a necessity of researching for efficacious medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate herbal preparations and their phytochemical constituents for burn wound management. For this purpose, electronic databases including Pubmed, Scirus, Scopus and Cochrane library were searched from 1966 to July 2013 for in vitro, in vivo or clinical studies which examined the effect of any herbal preparation on different types of burn wound. Only 3 human studies were found to include in this review. In contrast, there were 62 in vivo and in vitro studies that show the need for more clinical trials to prove the plant’s potential to cure burn wound. Among single herbal preparations, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Centella asiatica and Hippophae rhamnoides showed the best burn wound healing activity. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds were active constituents present in different herbs facilitating wound closure. Glycosides including madecassoside and asiaticoside and proteolytic enzymes were among the main active components. Phytochemicals represented positive activity at different stages of burn wound healing process by various mechanisms including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, collagen synthesis stimulation, cell proliferative and angiogenic effect. Overall, several herbal medicaments have shown marked activity in the management of wounds (especially burn wounds) and therefore can be considered as an alternative source of treatment. Furthermore, various natural compounds with verified burn-induced wound healing potential can be assumed as future natural drugs.

Banu, A., Sathyanarayana, B. C., and Chattannavar, G. (2012). Efficacy of fresh Aloe vera gel against multi--drug resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers. Australasian Medical Journal, 5(6), 305-309.

]Abstract: Infected leg ulcers are major health problems resulting in morbidity and disability and are usually chronic and refractory to antimicrobial treatment. Aims: The recent study is aimed at determining the bacteria involved in leg ulcers and their resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics as well as to determine whether Aloe  Vera has antibacterial activity against multi-drug-resistant organisms and promotes wound healing. Method: A total of 30 cases with leg ulcers infected with multi-drug-resistant organisms were treated with topical aloe vera gel and  30 age and sex-matched controls were treated with topical antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity was done from the wounds on alternate days and the ulcer was clinically and microbiologically assessed after 10 days. The results were compiled and statistically analysed. Results: Cultures of the study group who were using aloe vera dressings showed no growth by the fifth day in 10 (33.3%) cases, seventh day in another 16  (53.3%) and ninth day in two of the remaining four cases (6.7%) while in two (6.7%) cases, there was no decrease in the bacterial count. This means that of the 30 cases, 28 showed no growth by the end of 11 days while two cases showed  no decrease in bacterial count. Growth of bacteria in study group decreased from 100% (30 cases) to 6.7% (2 cases) by day 11 with  P<0.001. Cultures of the control group did not show any decrease in the bacterial growth by day 11. Conclusion: Aloe vera gel preparation is cheap and was effective even against multi-drug-resistant organisms as compared to the routinely used topical antimicrobial agents.

Barasnev, Y. I. (1970). Aloe extract used successfully in the process of brain compensation: An experimental study on animals. Russian Journal of Neuropathogical Science (Zhurnal Neorapatholgii Psikhiatrii), 1815-1819.

Abstract: A high stimulating effect on the brain was marked in introduction of cerebrolysin, Vitamin B12 and Extract of Aloe. The convened study permitted to display not only the stimulating mechanisms of therapeutic drugs on the growing brain, but to ground the expediency of their use in clinical practice for the treatment of cerebral disorders in children.

Baruzzi, D'ssa M. C., and Rovesti, P. (1970). The epidermical action of Aloe vera L. juice. Given at IFSCC Meeting, Centro Internazionale Ricerche Biocosmetiche - Milano.

Abstract: We can attribute a good dermatologic and cosmetologic action to aloe’s juice, so setting this juice among the phytocosmetic protectives modern cosmetology has at its disposal.

Bawankar, R., Deepti, V. C., Singh, P., Subashkumar, R., Vivekanandhan, G., and Babu, S. (2013). Evaluation of bioactive potential of an aloe vera sterol extract. Phytotherapy Research, 27, 864-868. 

Abstract: We prepared a crude gel material from Aloe vera succulent leaf tissues. The ethanolic extract of lyophilized A. vera gel was used for the GC-MS analysis. Hexadecanoic acid (22.22%) was identified as major compound. Sitosterol and stigmasterol were found to be 2.89% and 2.1% in the extract. HPLC analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of stigmasterol. The concentration of sterol extract needed to scavenge DPPH free radical by 50% was calculated as 5.2 mg mL-1. In the FRAP assay, the sterol extract showed significant hydroxyl radical scavenging in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 value 1.17 µg mL-1). Concentration of the sample required to reduce lipid peroxidation was found to be 4.18 µg mL-1, and the extract also possessed acetylcholinesterase activity (IC50 - 5.26 µg mL-1). Catalase activity was 0.196 µM H2O2 decomposed min-1 µg-1 protein, whereas the peroxidase activity was 17.01 µM of pyragallol oxidized min-1 µg-1 protein. The extract recorded higher activity against growth of S. greseus and C. albicans in the experiments carried out to determine antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively.

Bazvand, L., Aminozarbian, M. G, Farhad, A., Noormohammadi, H., Hasheminia, S. M., and Mobasherizadeh, S. (2014, July). Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture, chlorhexidine gel, and two natural materials Propolis and Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex vivo study. Dental Research Journal, 11(4), 469-475.

Abstract: The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of triantibiotic paste, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis in deep dentin. Ninety fresh extracted single-rooted teeth were used in a dentin block model. Seventy-five teeth were infected with E. faecalis and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15). Experimental groups were treated with triantibiotic mixture with distilled water, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, 70% ethanol + Propolis and Aloe vera. Fifteen teeth treated with distilled water as the positive control and 15 samples, free of bacterial contamination, were considered as the negative control. Gates-Glidden drill #4 was used for removal of surface dentin and Gates-Glidden drill #5 was used to collect samples of deep dentin. The samples were prepared and colony-forming units were counted. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: Triantibiotic mixture group exhibited the least bacterial growth. However, the rate of bacterial growth showed no significant differences between chlorhexidine and Propolis groups (P > 0.05). Aloe vera had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, but in comparison with other medicaments, it was less effective (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This experimental study showed that triantibiotic mixture, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aleo vera were relatively effective against E. faecalis. All the intracanal medicements had similar effects on E. faecalis in deep dentin except for Aloe vera.

Beikert, F. C., Schoenfeld, B. S., Frank, U., and Augustin, M. (2013 Jan). Anti-inflammatory potential of seven plant extracts in the ultraviolet erythema test: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Hautarzt, 64(1), 40-46.

Abstract: Phytotherapeutics are widely used in medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory potential of seven medical plant extracts using the ultraviolet (UV) erythema test. Aloe vera, Chamomilla recutita, Melissa officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Coriandrum sativum showed an anti-inflammatory effect compared to UV-control and unguentum leniens. However, the results were only statistically significant for Aloe vera. All tested plant extracts were well tolerated. Aloe vera possesses an anti-inflammatory effect on UV-induced erythemas.

Benenson, E., Zhilina, V., and Yagudia, A. (N.D.) Periodontosis (disease and loss of bone holding teeth) treated with extract of Aloe. Moscow Stomatological Institute.

Abstract: Periodontosis treated with extract of Aloe. (Also reference to treatment of cataracts and hearing impairment).

Bertolini, P. F. R., Filho, O. B., Pomilio, A., Pinheiro, S. L., and De Carvalho, M. S. (2012). Antimicrobial capacity of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans strains in toothbrushes: an in vitro study. J Appl Oral Sci., 20(1), 32-37. 

Abstract: This study evaluated in vitro the efficiency of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice on reducing the contamination of toothbrush bristles by a standard strain of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175; SM), after toothbrushing. Material and Methods: Fifteen sterile toothbrushes were randomly divided into 5 toothbrushing groups: I (negative control): without dentifrice; II: with fluoridated dentifrice; III: with triclosan and gantrez dentifrice; IV (positive control): without dentifrice and irrigation with 10 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; V: with Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice. In each group, 1 sterile bovine tooth was brushed for 1 min, where the toothbrush bristles were contaminated with 25 µL of SM. After toothbrushing, the bristles were stored in individual test tubes with 3 mL of BHI under anaerobiosis of 37°C for 48 h. Then, they were seeded with sterile swab in triplicate in the Mitis salivarius: Bacitracin culture medium. The samples were kept under anaerobiosis of 37°C for 48 h. Scores were used to count the number of colony forming units (cfu). The results were submitted to the Mann-Whitney statistical test at 5% significance level. Results: There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for the reduction of bristle contamination comparing groups II, III, IV and V to group I. Conclusions: It may be stated that after toothbrushing, the Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice reduced the contamination of toothbrush bristles by SM, without differentiation from the other chemical agents used.

Bhalang, K., Thunyakitpisal, P., and Rungsirisatean, N. (2013). Acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from aloe vera, is effective in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(5), 429-434. 

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the safety and effectiveness of acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera, in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration. Design: A skin patch test was performed on 100 healthy subjects, and 0.5% acemannan in Carbopol 934P NF (Lubrizol Corporation, USA) was applied to the oral mucosa of the lower lip of 50 healthy participants 3 times/day for 7 days. Oral examinations and blood tests measuring liver and kidney function were performed prior to, and following, 7 days of application to assess the side-effects of acemannan when used on oral mucosa. Another 180 subjects with recurrent aphthous ulceration randomly received one of three treatments: 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (HOE Pharmaceuticals, Malaysia), 0.5% acemannan in Carbopol 934P NF, or pure Carbopol 934P NF. Medications were applied to the ulcers 3 times/day for 7 days. Measurements of ulcer size and patient satisfaction ratings were performed on days 2, 5, and 7. Pain ratings were recorded daily. Results: No subjects exhibited allergic reactions or side effects to acemannan. There were no significant differences between the blood test values before and after 7 days of acemannan application. The effectiveness of acemannan in reducing ulcer size and pain was superior to that of control, but inferior to that of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide. Patients were mostly satisfied with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide and acemannan treatment. Conclusions: Acemannan can be used for the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration in patients who wish to avoid the use of steroid medication, although the effectiveness was not comparable to that of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide.

Bharucha, F. R., and Joshi, G. V. (1957, March). Studies in Crassulacean metabolism in Aloe vera linn. The Journal of the University of Bombay, XXV(5).

Abstract: An attempt is made to study organic acid metabolism in Aloe vera.

Bland, J. (1985, March/April). The effect of orally consumed Aloe vera juice on gastrointestinal function in normal humans. Preventive Medicine.

Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of oral Aloe vera juice supplementation on gastric pH, stool specific gravity, protein digestion/absorption, and stool microbiology. Results indicate that supplemental oral Aloe vera juice is well tolerated by most individuals and has favorable effects upon a number of gastrointestinal parameters. A discussion of the potential role of Aloe vera juice on inflammatory bowel disorders based upon this work is presented.

Blitz, J. J., Smith, J. W., and Gerard, J. R. (1963, April). Aloe vera gel in peptic ulcer therapy: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 62, 731-735.

Abstract: There can be little doubt that the properties ascribed to Aloe vera gel should be therapeutically helpful in the management of peptic ulcer; but whether or not these properties occasion correction of the ulcer-producing process, it is unmistakable that Aloe vera gel, through whatever mechanism, is clinically beneficial in the treatment of this very important disease.

Bogaard, M. P. (1985, July). Report on the analysis of Aloe vera gel. (Report prepared on behalf of Unisearch Limited for Friendship Aloe Vera Pty. Ltd. Brookvale).

Abstract: Gives a tables that lists the results of the total solids determination and the elemental analyses. Originals of the infra-red spectra are included with the report.

Boonyagul, S., Banlunara, W., Sangvanich, P., and Thunyakitpisal, P. (2014). Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology, 102, 310-317. 

Abstract: Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [3H] thymidine incor-poration assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blot-ting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization. In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.

Bouchey, G. D., and Gjerstad, G. (1969). Chemical studies of Aloe vera juice II: Inorganic ingredients. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research, 9(4), 1445-1453.

Abstract: An investigation of the mineral constituents of Aloe vera.

Bovik, E. G. (1966, January). Aloe vera, panacea or old wives' tales? Texas Dental Journal, 84, 13-16.

Abstract: Use of Aloe in dentistry.

Bowles, W. B. (n.d.). Medical aspects of Aloe. Melbourne, FL: Terry Laboratories.

Abstract: Present uses of aloe vera gel products, potential uses for aloe vera gel products, typical components found in the gel of aloe vera, harvesting, manufacturing and handling of aloe vera gel, new product development.

Brasher, W. J., Zimmermann, E. R., and Collings, C. K. (1969, January). The effects of predisolone, indomethacin, and Aloe vera gel on tissue culture cells. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine & Oral Pathology,27, 122-128.

Abstract: Comparison of Aloe vera to other drugs for toxicity.

Burger, A., Grubert, M., and Schuster, O. (n.d.). Aloe vera : Renascence of a traditional natural drug as a dermopharmaceutical. Skin care.

Abstract: Efficiency and tolerance of Aloe vera gel preparations in experimentally induced skin injuries.

Capriotti, T. (1999, February 1). Exploring the ‘Herbal Jungle’. MedSurg Nursing.

Abstract: Discusses natural medicines in general with a some information specifically regarding Aloe vera.

Cardenas-Ibarra, L., and Villarreal-Perez, J. Z. (2012, June). Randomized double blind factorial assay, aloe vera (AV) and/or cnidoscolus chayamansa (CC) versus placebo, reduction of high blood glucose in women with metabolic syndrome. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, NCT00916175. 

Abstract: High blood sugar and adiposity are part of Metabolic syndrome (about 24% of adults harbor it). The main approach, weight reduction, is often unattainable. Aloe Vera (barbadensis) (AV) and cnidoscolus chayamansa (McVaugh) (CC) are two vegetables that seem to have an effect on blood glucose and body weight. The study aims to determine if the intake of aloe gel and/or Chaya infusion can reduce high blood sugar in adult women with pre-diabetes (Metabolic Syndrome). Methods: A Factorial assay, double blind, cross-over-controlled with random assignment, to four treatments: AV and CC, AV and Placebo 1, Placebo 2 and CC, and Placebo 1 and Placebo 2, at the outpatient clinic of the university Hospital and a community clinic. Two treatment periods of 4 weeks intermediated by one week for wash-out.

Cassileth, B. (2011, June 13). Aloe vera (aloe barbadensis, aloe capensis). Oncology, 25:7, 1-3

Abstract: In vitro studies indicate that aloe has immunomodulatory, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Emodin, an extract of aloe, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cell lines via p53- and p21-dependent pathways. One study showed topical aloe vera to be superior to silver sulfadiazine (drug information on silver sulfadiazine) cream, an agent commonly used to treat second-degree burns. A few trials have explored aloe’s anticancer effects. Concurrent oral administration of aloe with chemotherapy was reported to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic cancers and to prevent oral mucositis. Data on topical aloe’s role in alleviating radiation therapy-induced skin damage are inconsistent. More research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of aloe vera in cancer patients.

Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Di Campli, E., Genovese, S., Locatelli, M., and Di Giulio, M. (2014). In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 59, 43-48.

Abstract: Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a herbal remedy widely used for a variety of illnesses; A. vera leaf extracts have been promoted for detoxification, cure constipation, help flush out toxins and wastes from the body, promote digestion and are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer for cytoprotective action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of A. vera inner gel against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in Abruzzo region, Italy. The inner gel of leaves of a 5-year-old plant of A. vera was extracted, homogenized and tested from 800 to 1.56 mg ml-1 against 14 clinical strains and one reference strain of H. pylori using the broth microdilution methodology. Furthermore, the sample of A. vera was investigated for the chemical fingerprint of anthraquinones. The inhibitory concentrations of A. vera inner gel were similar to the bactericidal ones, with values ranging from 6.25 to 800 mg ml-1 . Fifty percent of the detected strains, independently of their susceptibility profile, were inhibited in their growth at 100 mg ml-1 . Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against H. pylori and, therefore, in combination with antibiotics, could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of the infection of H. pylori, especially in cases of multi-resistance.

Cera, L. M., Heggers, J. P., Robson, M. C., and Hafstrom, W. J. (1980, September/October). The therapeutic efficacy of Aloe vera cream in thermal injuries: Two case reports. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association,16, 768-772.

Abstract: This report by the University of Chicago Burn Center is about two dogs, both mixed shepherds, who were accidentally burned over such a large portion of their bodies that ordinary treatment would have been considered nearly futile. The very successful use of an Aloe vera cream is carefully documented.

Cera, L. M., Heggers, J. P., Hafstrom, W. J., and Robson, M. C. (1982, July/August). Therapeutic protocol for thermally injured animals and its successful use in an extensively burned Rhesus monkey. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association,18, 633-638.

Abstract: This article from the University of Chicago Burn Center, is exceptional because the 70% burns received accidentally by this monkey should have been fatal, but the animal was not only saved but quickly returned to good health by treatment, the primary part of which was by Aloe vera.

Chantarawaratit, P., Sangvanich, P., Banlunara, W., Soontornvipart, K., and Thunyakitpisal, P. (2014). Acemannan sponges stimulate alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration in a canine class II furcation defect model. Journal of Periodontal Research, 49, 164-178. 

Abstract: Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease, found worldwide, causing the destruction of the periodontium. The periodontium is a complex structure composed of both soft and hard tissues, thus an agent applied to regenerate the periodontium must be able to stimulate periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone regeneration. Recent studies demonstrated that acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, stimulated both soft and hard tissue healing. This study investigated effect of acemannan as a bioactive molecule and scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration.

Chaudhary, G. (2011). Inhibition of dimethylebenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera treatment. International Journal of Biological and Medical Research, 2(3), 671-678.

Abstract: The present study, anti-cancer property of Aloe vera was evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. A single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (100 g/100 l of acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) for 16 weeks exhibited 100 percent tumor incidence (group III). In contrast, animals treated topically with Aloe gel (group IV) or orally with Aloe extract (group V) and topical with Aloe gel plus orally with extract (group VI) exhibited 40, 50 and 20 per cent tumor incidence, which significantly higher than 100% tumor incidence in the group III (control). The cumulative number of papillomas during the observation period of 16 weeks was significantly decreased in the Aloe treated groups IV, V and VI (4, 5 and 2 in Aloe gel, Aloe extract, and Aloe gel plus Aloe extract treated animals respectively) in compare to 36 cumulative number of papillomas in carcinogen control group. The average latent period significantly increased from 4.9 weeks in the control group to 5.3, 6.4 and 6.5 weeks in all Aloe treated groups. The tumor burden and tumor yield were significantly lesser (1.33, 1.25 and 1.0 and 0.4, 0.5 and 0.2) as compared to DMBA/croton oil treated control (3.6 and 3.6). Furthermore, the level of lipid peroxidation was significantly lesser than in the control animals (group III) in skin. In addition, depleted levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), DNA, catalase and protein were restored in Aloe-treated groups. The study has revealed the inhibition of dimethylebenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera treatment.

Chaudhary, G., Saini, M. R., and Goyal, P. K. (2015, March). Chemopreventive potential of Aloe vera against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in mice. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 6(4), 405-412. 

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor-promoting activity of Aloe vera on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis, induced by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and promoted by treatment of croton oil for 16 weeks in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of aloe leaf extract at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/d and aloe gel treatment at a dose of 1 mL/9 cm(2)/mice/d was found to be effective in decreasing the number and size of the papillomas. A significant reduction in tumor incidence (40.00+/-5.10, 30.00+/-3.25, and 40.00+/-4.12 for aloe gel, aloe gel and aloe leaf extract combined, and aloe leaf extract alone, respectively) was observed in animals in the aloe extract- and aloe gel-treated groups compared with 100% tumor incidence in the control group. The cumulative number of papillomas during an observation period of 16 weeks was significantly reduced in the aloe-treated groups (8.0+/-0.34, 6.00+/-1.10, and 9.00+/-1.41 for aloe gel, aloe gel and leaf extract, and aloe leaf extract, respectively) compared with a 36+/- 0.98 cumulative number of papillomas in the control group. The average latent period was significantly increased from 4.9+/-0.10 weeks in the control group to 6.37+/-0.12, 6.8+/-0.25, and 6.2+/-0.21 weeks in the aloe-treated groups, respectively. The tumor burden and tumor yield were significantly decreased (2.0+/-0.25, 2.00+/-0.30, and 2.25+/-0.2 and 0.8+/-0.25, 0.6+/-0.32, and 0.9+/-0.28, respectively) as compared with the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated control group (3.6+/-0.10 and 3.6+/-0.19). Furthermore, treatment with aloe gel and/or extract by topical and/or oral administration resulted in a significant increase in the reduced glutathione.

Cheney, R. H. (1970). Aloe drug in human therapy. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research,10, 1523-1530.

Abstract: Briefly discusses history, botany, parts used and production, chemistry, medical evaluation and experimentation of Aloe as it relates to x-ray and other thermal injuries and skin diseases.

Cherikchi, L. Ye. (n.d.). On the stability of therapeutic effect in treatment of eye diseases with Aloe extract electrophoresis (results of late observations). In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max Skousen, 102-105.

Abstract: Therapeutic effect obtained in treatment of various eye diseases with aloe extract electrophoresis, is persistent. The effect of repeated courses of treatment with aloe extract electrophoresis is attended most commonly by further improvement in the conditions of the eyes.

Chihara, T., Shimpo, K., Kaneko, T., Beppu, H., Higashiguchi, T., Sonoda, S., Tanaka, M., Yamada, M., and Abe F. (2015). Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane-induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high-fat diet. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev., 16(2), 683-687. 

Abstract: Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

Chikalo, I., and Bolovyeve, V. (n.d.). The small intestine’s function effected by Aloe extract. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data. Moscow, USSR: Medexport, Ukrainian SSR Research Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy.

Abstract: Aloe extract may be recommended for stimulating the secretory function of the small intestine.

Chinchilla, N., Carrera C., Duran, A. G., Macias, M., Torres, A., and Macias, F. A. (2013). Aloe barbadensis: How a miraculous plant becomes reality. Phytochem Rev, 12, 581-602. 

Abstract: Aloe barbadensis Miller is a plant that is native to North and East Africa and has accompanied man for over 5,000 years. The aloe vera plant has been endowed with digestive, dermatological, culinary and cosmetic virtues. On this basis, aloe provides a range of possibilities for fascinating studies from several points of view, including the analysis of chemical composition, the biochemistry involved in various activities and its application in pharmacology, as well as from horticultural and economic standpoints. The use of aloe vera as a medicinal plant is mentioned in numerous ancient texts such as the Bible. This multitude of medicinal uses has been described and discussed for centuries, thus transforming this miracle plant into reality. A summary of the historical uses, chemical composition and biological activities of this species is presented in this review. The latest clinical studies involved in vivo and in vitro assays conducted with aloe vera gel or its metabolites and the results of these studies are reviewed.

Cho, S., Lee, S., Lee, M. J., Lee, D. H., Won, C. H., Kim, S. M., and Chung, J. H. (2009). Dietary Aloe vera supplementation improves facial wrinkles and elasticity and it increases the type I procollagen gene expression in human skin in vivo. Ann Dermatol (Seoul), 21(1), 6-11. 

Abstract: No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin. Objective: We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin. Methods: Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. Skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR. Results: After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p < 0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups. Conclusion: Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups.

Choi, S., and Chung, M. (2003, March). A review on the Relationship Between Aloe Vera Components and Their Biologic Effects. Seminars in Integrative Medicine, 1(1), 53-62. 

Abstract: Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is a perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceal family, and is called the healing plant or the silent healer. As a result of its use as folk medicine, it is claimed that aloe vera has wound and burn healing properties, and anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Aloe vera is used in a variety of commercial products because of these therapeutic properties. It is being used as a whole extract, however, and the relationship between the components of the extract and its overall effect has not been clarified. A more precise understanding of the biologic activities of these is required to develop aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source. Many attempts have been made to isolate single, biologically active components, to examine their effects, and clarify their functional mechanism. This review focuses on the relationship between the isolated aloe vera components (ie, glycoproteins, anthraquinones, saccharides, low-molecular-weight substances) and their presumed pharmacologic activities.

Choi, H. C., Kim, S. J., Son, K. Y., Oh, B. J., and Cho, B. L. (2013). Metabolic effects of aloe vera gel complex in obese prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients: Randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, 29, 1110-1114. 

Abstract: The metabolic effects of an aloe vera gel complex (Aloe QDM complex) on people with prediabetes or early diabetes mellitus (DM) are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Aloe QDM complex on body weight, body fat mass (BFM), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, and Homeostasis Model of Assessment - Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese individuals with prediabetes or early DM who were not on diabetes medications. Methods: Participants (n = 136) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 8 wk. Results: The study lost six participants in the control group and eight in the intervention group. At 8 wk, body weight (P = 0.02) and BFM (P = 0.03) were significantly lower in the intervention group. At 4 wk, serum insulin level (P = 0.04) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.047) were lower in the intervention group; they also were lower at 8 wk but with borderline significance (P = 0.09; P = 0.08, respectively). At 8 wk, FBG tended to decrease in the intervention group (P = 0.02), but the between-group difference was not significant (P = 0.16). Conclusion: In obese individuals with prediabetes or early untreated DM, Aloe QDM complex reduced body weight, BFM, and insulin resistance.

Cole, H. N. (MD), & Chen, K. K. (MD). (1943, February). Aloe vera in oriental dermatology. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 47, 250.

Abstract: Brief history of oriental dermatological use of Aloe.

Collins, C. E., and Collins, C. (1935, March). Roentgen dermatitis treated with fresh whole leaf of Aloe vera. American Journal of Roentgenology, 33(3), 396-397.

Abstract: Fresh Aloe vera used for x-ray dermatitis. This article by Dr. Creston Collins and his father was the landmark report, creating waves of interest throughout the world among medical science. Since the new wonder treatment of roentgen rays had some tragic side effects, the ancient and often scoffed at “Medicine Plant” provided the only workable solution for many cases.

Cope, O. (1948) .The burn problem. Advances in Military Medicine,1, Chapter XII, 149-154.

Abstract: Pearl Harbor, World War II, and other burn disasters prompted this discussion of possible burn treatments.

Crewe, J. E. (1939, August). Whole Leaf aloe vera aloes in the treatment of burns and scalds. Minnesota Journal of Medicine, 1-4.

Abstract: Recent medical literature contains many excellent articles on the treatment of burns. While numerous methods have been mentioned, in those most generally accepted, tannic acid is employed. In Bettman’s treatment, tannic acid is applied in a spray, and this is followed by application of 10 per cent silver nitrate. Apparently, this sequence has distinct advantages over the use of tannic acid alone. Good as these methods are, I have experienced annoyance from infection, and from the long period required for separation and removal of the coagulum in some cases in which I have used tannic acid. It has been a relief to me, therefore, to find a treatment which has eliminated these disadvantages. This method has proved so simple and the results have been so satisfactory, that I have not used any other treatment for burns since the spring of 1937.

Crewe, J. E. (1939, January 6). Aloes in the treatment of burns and scalds. Minnesota Medicine,22, 538-539.

Abstract: This method has proved so simple and the results have been so satisfactory, that I have not used any other treatment for burns since the spring of 1935. I employ an ointment of which the active ingredient is Aloe.

Crewe , J. E. (MD). (1937). The external use of Aloes. Minnesota Medicine, 20, 670-673.

Abstract: Aloe treatment for palmar eczema, pruritus vulva, external ulcers, poison ivy and burns.

Cui, Y., Ye, Q., Wang, H., Li, Y., Yao, W., and Qian, H. (2013, November 23). Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe vera polysaccharides against chronic alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Sci Food Agric, 94, 1764-1771. 

Abstract: Aloe vera polysaccharides are reported to exhibit multiple biological effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and immune enhancement. However, their influence on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the protective effect of extracted A. vera polysaccharides (AVGP) against ALD in a chronic alcohol-feeding mouse model and investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Results: Supplementation of AVGP significantly attenuated the levels of serum aminotransferases, lipids and hepatic TG and ameliorated histopathological alterations in the model of ALD. Interestingly, AVGP markedly up-regulated hepatic expression of lipolytic genes (AMPK-α2 and PPAR-α) but had no effect on lipogenic gene expression. AVGP diminished alcohol-dependent oxidative stress partly through a decrease in MDA and increase in GSH and SOD. Alcohol-induced inflammation was also mitigated by AVGP treatment via significant reduction in LPS and TNF-α, down-regulation of TLR-4 and MyD88 and up-regulation of IκB-α. Conclusion: This study clearly showed that AVGP exerts a potent protective effect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. Its hepato-protective effect appears to be associated with its antioxidant capacity and its ability to accelerate lipolysis and inhibit inflammatory response. The results indicate that AVGP could be considered as a potent food supplement in the prevention of ALD.

Czarapata, B. J. (1995, October). Super-Strength Aloe vera capsules in interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome, chronic pelvic pain, and nonbacterial prostatitis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial using Desert Harvest Aloe vera at the Urology Wellness Center, Rockville, Maryland. Proceedings of the NIDDK Scientific Symposium, San Diego, California. National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Abstract: Because of the promising anecdotal findings of interstitial cystitis (IC) patients who had tried Desert Harvest's super-strength, freeze-dried Aloe vera capsules, the Urology Wellness Center (UWC) in Rockville, Maryland, designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of this highly concentrated form of the Aloe vera plant in 13 IC/PBS patients. The study included three months of placebo followed by three months of Aloe vera or vice versa, depending on randomization. The study included a cross-over segment, with each patient receiving both substances at some point during the study and acting as her/his own control. The patients were assigned control numbers randomized by computer, and the products were shipped directly to the patient every month by the blinded manufacturer. The primary objective of the study was to monitor the safety and efficacy of Desert Harvest's concentrated super-strength, freeze-dried Aloe vera capsules in the management of the symptoms of IC/PBS. The symptoms that were monitored included urinary frequency, nocturia, dysuria, urgency, and suprapubic pain. Response to therapy was monitored by Quality-of-Life Assessment, IC Symptom/Problem Index, Health Status Questionnaire, and 24-Hour Voiding Diary. Of the 13 patients who were recruited for the study, 8 completed the full six months of the trial. Of the 8 patients who completed the study, 7 patients received relief from at least some of their symptoms of pelvic pain, frequency of urination, pressure, or nocturia (87.5%). Four patients experienced significant relief from all or most of their symptoms (50%). Only one patient had no response after completing all six months of the study (12.5%).


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