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W. R. Sage, Inc. (1977, October). Aloe vera report.

Abstract: Addresses history, medicinal properties, toxicology, effects of Aloe vera powder on microorganisms, evaluation of Aloe vera, effects of Aloe vera liquid on microorganisms, effects of Aloe vera liquid on mycotic organisms, and what Aloe vera can do for you.

Waller, G. R., Mangiafico, S., and Ritchey, C. R. (1978). A chemical investigation of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 58, 69-76.

Abstract: Free amino acids, free monosaccharides and total saccharides released upon hydrolysis, sterols, and triterpenoids of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves were determined. Some seventeen amino acids, D-glucose, and D-mannose were present in the water-soluble fraction. Cholesterol, campesterol, β-sirosterol, and lupcol were found in substantial amounts in the lipid fraction. An unknown(s) alkaloid was detected using Dragendorff’s reagent.

Walter, P. (2005, October 17). Aloe vera extract may preserve food for longer. Chemistry and Industry.

Abstract: An edible coating of Aloe vera extract that could preserve fruit and vegetables for up to five times longer may be on the market within a year. Researchers say the spray could reduce the use of synthetic preservatives.

Wan, P., Chen, H., Guo, Y., and Bai, A. P. (2014, October 21). Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: From bench to bedside. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 20(39), 14099-14104. 

Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed.

Wang, Y. T., and Strong, K. J. (n.d.). Two-year study monitoring several physical and chemical properties of field-grown Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves. Texas A&M University.

Abstract: A two-year study on the properties of Aloe vera. The results of this study are being used by The International Aloe Science Council as the standard for what levels of various elements should be in Aloe vera for its certification program.

Wang, Z. W., Huang, Z. S., Yang, A. P., Li, C. Y., Huang, H., Lin, X., Liu, Z. C., and Zhu, X. F. (2005, April). Radioprotective effect of aloe polysaccharides on three non-tumor cell lines. School of Pharmacy, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510405, P. R. China, 24(4), 438-42).

Abstract: Our previous study showed that aloe polysaccharides (AP) could evidently decrease the mortality of irradiated mice mainly through increasing the amount of hemocytes and ameliorating immune function of mice. Whether AP can protect the cells in vitro from irradiation damage is unknown. This study was to explore radioprotective effect of AP on 3 non-tumor cell lines, and its effect on cell cycle. AP has radioprotective effect on non-tumor cells. This effect might relate to alleviating of cell cycle turbulence.

Waters, F. (2001, December 22). Doctors put Aloe vera to the medicine test. Health: Natural remedy studied. (News). Western Mail. Cardiff, Wales.

Abstract: The natural remedy Aloe vera could soon be prescribed by general practitioners for irritable bowel syndrome.

Watt, J. M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M. G. (1962). The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd ed. E. and S. Livingstone Ltd. Edinburgh and London, 680-687.

Werawatganon, D., Linlawan, S., Thanapirom, K., Somanawat, K., Klaikeaw, N., Rerknimitr, R., and Siriviriyakul, P. (2014). An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 229. 

Abstract: An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods: Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results: In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 + 533.86 vs 85.28 + 28.27 U/L, 3.60 + 1.50 vs 1.38 + 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 + 1.10 vs 1.84 + 1.29%, and 13.26 + 0.90 vs 2.54 + 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 + 0.30 vs 11.65 + 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 + 495.45 vs 1210.50 + 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 + 0.64 vs 3.60 + 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 + 1.25 vs 12.18 + 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 + 0.94 vs 13.26 + 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 + 0.20 vs 5.98 + 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions: APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP-induced hepatitis through the improvement of liver histopathology by decreased oxidative stress, reduced liver injury, and restored hepatic GSH.

West, D. P., and Fen, Y. (2003, February). Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Amerian Journal of Infection Control, 31, 40-42.

Abstract: An examination glove that delivers aloe vera (AV) gel to the gloved hand was studied in 30 adult females with bilateral occupational dry skin with or without irritant contact dermatitis (with or without erythema, fissures, and excoriations). All participants were factory assembly-line workers with repeated superficial skin trauma who attributed their dry, irritated, emollient-dependent skin to a common cause (occupational exposure). Participants were sequentially enrolled (after written informed consent, n = 29 evaluable participants) into an open, contralateral comparison study to evaluate efficacy of AV glove use 8 h/day to one hand versus no use to the opposite hand for 30 days, followed by 30 days rest, followed by 10 days of repeated use. Participant’s dorsal hands were documented by standardized photos at baseline, during, and at the end of study. Results: Unblinded investigator baseline assessment rated dry skin as mild to moderate (n = 27), or moderate to severe (n = 2). Mean time to noticeable improvement for the AV glove hand was 3.5 days (range: 2-6 days) whereas marked improvement was 10.4 days (range: 7-17 days) for the AV glove hand. No improvement was detected for nonglove hands. Blinded photo assessment was rated independently by dermatology research staff. End-of-study mean global assessment of AV glove hands versus nonglove hands was 1.3 for AV glove hand (0 = no change, 1 = good [10%-89% global improve-ment], 2 = marked improvement [90%-100% global improvement]) versus 0 for nonglove hand (P < .0001). Mean global end-of-study assessments by the participants = 2.0 for AV glove hand versus 0 for nonglove hand. Conclusion: Dry-coated AV gloves that provide for gradual delivery of AV gel to skin produced a uniformly positive outcome of improved skin integrity, decreased appearance of fine wrinkling, and decreased erythema in the management of occupational dry skin and irritant contact dermatitis.

Wikipedia. (2015). Aloe vera.

Abstact: Aloe vera is a succulent plant species. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing, or soothing properties. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of Aloe vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies.

Winters, W. D. (1993). Immunoreactive lectins in leaf gel from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Phytotherapy Research, 7, S23-S25.

Abstract: Lectins isolated from the gel portion of leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller by differential centrifugations and gel filtration were found to have strong hemaglutination and mitogenic activities. hemaglutination titres induced by these lectins were markedly higher than those induced by lectins isolated similarly from Aloe saponaria Haw and Aloe chinensis. The levels of lymphocyte blastogenesis using the Aloe barbadensis Miller lectins were high, but markedly less than those detected using positive control lectins concanavalin A and phytohemoglutinin. Results of Western blot transfers followed by immunoblots using specific receptor antisera suggested that the Aloe barbadensis Miller lectins were active at alpha D-glucose and mannose sites and not at n-acetyl glucosamine sites. The hemaglutination activities of these Aloe substances were also observed to decrease as a function of time frozen at liquid nitrogen temperatures for up to 9 years.

Winters, W. D., Benavides, R., and Clouse, W. J. (1981). Effects of Aloe extracts on human normal and tumor cells in vitro. Economic Botany,35(1), 89-95.

Abstract: A landmark report on the function of Aloe vera as a biogenic or cellular stimulator. Dr. Winders also found the importance of having effective Aloe vera. As shown by his study, the biogenic stimulator ability of Aloe vera can be reduced or even reversed by improper processing. Effective Aloe vera enhanced normal cells while not helping tumor cells, showing a marvelous selectivity to health producing function.

Womble, D., and Helderman, J. Harold. (1988, March 25). Enhancement of allo-responsiveness of human lymphocytes by Acemannan (Carrisyn). Journal of Immunopharmacology, 10(8), 967-974.

Abstract: Since acemannan appears to enhance monocyte function in other experiments, these studies were designed to test the capacity of acemannan to enhance immune response to alloantigen and to test whether the potential enhancement is a monocyte driven phenomenon.

World Health Organization. (1999). WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume 1. Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract: Monographs on selectedmedicinal plants, including Aloe vera.

Wright, C. S. (1936). Aloe vera in the treatment of Roentgen ulcers and telangiectasis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 106(16), 1363-1364.

Abstract: From the case reported, it would seem that x-ray ulceration, even of several years' duration, will respond to the use of aloe vera. The permanence of results can be determined only by watching cases thus treated over a period of time. Little can be expected in the treatment of telangiectasis as a result of irradiation beyond a smoothing and softening of the affected skin.

Wright, R. (2005, May 1). Inside Aloe: Using Aloe in nutraceutical applications seems like a natural progression for the ingredient, but Aloe makers must resolve some challenges before fully developing this market. Nutraceuticals World.

Abstract: Predicts more internal use of Aloe vera in the future and also calls for more research, education and standardization.

Yagi, A. (n.d.). The chemistry of low-molecular weight chromones and glycoproteins from Aloe vera. School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Japan.

Abstract: Dr. Yagi examines the chemistry of low molecular weight phenolic and chromone components of the latex exudate and glycoproteins from the gel of Aloe vera.

Yagi, A., Hamada, K., Mihashi, K., Harada, N., and Nishioka, I. (1984). Structure determination of polysaccharides in Aloe saponaria (Hill.) Haw. (Liliaceae). Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,73(1), 62-65.

Abstract: A crude preparation of both As mannan 1 and As mannan 2 was effective in reducing edema in rats when given intraperitoneally, but was ineffective when given orally.

Yagi, A., Harada, N., Shimomura, K., and Nishioka, I. (1986, March 18). Bradykinin-degrading glycoprotein in Aloe arborescens var. natalensis., 19-21.

Abstract: In this report, data on the isolation of a glycoprotein (aloe glycoprotein) with bradykinin-degrading activity on an isolated guinea pig ileum in vitro and a proteolytic activity against bradykinin are presented.

Yagi, A., Harada, N., Yamada, H., Iwadare, S., and Nishioka, I. (1982b). Antibradykinin active material in Aloe saponaria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71, 1172-1174.

Abstract: In this report, the results of partial purification of material having antibradykinin activity from A. saponaria on isolated guinea pig ileum and its proteolytic property against bradykinin are presented.

Yagi, A., Hegazy, S., Kabbash, A., and Abd-El Wahab, E. (2009). Possible hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions on Type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 17, 209-215.

Abstract: Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions (AHM) containing less than 10 ppm of barbaloin and polysaccharide (MW: 1000 kDa) with glycoprotein, Verectin (MW: 29 kDa), were prepared by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze dry technique with microwave and far infrared radiation. AHM produced significant decrease in blood glucose level sustained for 6 weeks of the start of the study. Significant decrease in triglycerides was only observed 4 weeks after treatment and continued thereafter. No deleterious effects on kidney and liver functions were apparent. Treatment of diabetic patients with AHM may relief vascular complications probably via activation of immune system.

Yagi, A., Kanbara, T., and Morinobu, N. (1987). Inhibition of mushroom-tyrosinase by Aloe extract. Planta Medica, 515-517.

Abstract: The current increases in the use of Aloe extract as a skin cosmetic prompted us to identify the active component. In this report, the isolation from fresh Aloe leaf of the inhibitor of L-dopa oxidation by mushroom-tyrosinase and its analysis by high performance liquid chromatography are presented.

Yagi, A., Machii, K., Hishimura, H., Shida, T., and Nishioka, I. (1985). Effect of aloe lectin on deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in baby hamster kidney cells. Experientia, 41, 669-671.

Abstract: Shows the characterization of the chemical and physical properties of a glycoprotein that has a lectin property and that stimulates DNA synthesis in BHK 21 cells. Aloe lectin, which induces blastmitogenesis, may be responsible for the therapeutic effect of aloe on burns.

Yagi, A., Makino, K., and Nishioka, I. (1977). Studies on the constituents of Aloe saponaria Haw. II. The structures of tetrahydroanthracene derivatives, aloesaponol III and -IV. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 25(7), 1764-1770.

Abstract: This paper deals with structure elucidation of aloesaponol III and -IV and the elucidation of the absolute configuration of C 4 hydroxyl group in aloesaponol III and of C 3 hydroxyl group in aloesaponol I.

Yagi, A., Nishimura, H., Shida, T., and Nishioka, I. (1985, December 9). Structure determination of polysaccharides in Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Planta Medica, 213- 218.

Abstract: This paper deals with the determination of structure and evaluation of polysaccharides and glycoproteins as active phagocytosis promoters.

Yagi, A., Shibata, S., Nishioka, I., Iwadare, S., and Ishida, Y. (1982). Cardiac stimulant action of constituents of Aloe saponaria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71(7), 739-741.

Abstract: A highly potent cardiotonic substance, calcium isocitrate, was isolated from Aloe saponaria, using solvent partition, nonionic porous resin, and gel permeation chromatographies. Cardiac stimulant activity of synthesized steroisomers of calcium isocitrate was demonstrated in isolated guinea pig atria.

Yagi, A., Shida, T., and Nishimura, H. (1987). Effect of amino acids in Aloe extract on phagocytosis by peripheral neutrophil in adult bronchial asthma. Jrn. J. Allergol, 36(12), 1094-1101.

Abstract: The dialyzable material from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis was examined in phagocytosis and a phagocytic killing test of Candida albicans. Separation of the active component was carried out by chromatography on ion exchange resins, and the activity was detected in the neutral amino acid fraction. The results from the bioassay and comparative study on amino acid compositions in the fractions isolated showed a positive participation by cysteine and proline in phagocytosis. A mixture of cysteine and proline (1:1) significantly enhanced the depressed phagocytosis of neutrophils in adult bronchial asthma.

Yagi, A., Shoyama, Y., and Nishioka, I. (1983). Formation of tetrahydroanthracene glucosides by callus tissue of Aloe saponaria. Phytochemistry, 22(6), 1483-1484.

Abstract: Callus tissue of Aloe Saponaria grown in the dark produced a new tetrahydroanthracene glucoside, I-oxo-2-methoxy-4,8,9-trihydroxy-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroanthracene (aloesaponol IV) 8-O-β-D-glucoside, together with known tetrahydroanthracene glucosides. The effect of light on the formation of tetrahydroanthracene and anthraquinone glucosides is discussed.

Yagi, A., Yamanouchi, M., and Nishioka, I. (1978). Biosynthetic relationship between tetrahydroanthracene and anthraquinone in Aloe saponaria. Phytochemistry, 12, 895-897.

Abstract: This paper deals with the biosynthetic relationship between aloesaponol I, aloesaponarin I and Iaccaic acid D methyl ester in Aloe saponaria.

Yimam, M., Zhao, J., Corneliusen, B., Pantier, M., Brownell, L., and Jia, Q. (2014). Blood glucose lowering activity of aloe based composition, UP780, in alloxan induced insulin dependent mouse diabetes model. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 6:61 

Abstract: There are a few nutritional approaches to address the increased needs of managing diabetic conditions. Previously it has been reported that UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an aloe polysaccharide, has a significant impact in reducing HbA1C, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and plasma insulin level in humans and improved impaired glucose and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced and db/db non-insulin dependent diabetic mouse models. Here we describe activity of UP780 and its constituents to improve insulin sensitivity in alloxan induced insulin dependent diabetic mouse model. Materials and method: Insulin dependent diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 150 mg/kg to CD-1 mice. Aloesin (UP394) was formulated with an Aloe w`vera inner leaf gel powder polysaccharide (Qmatrix) to yield a composition designated UP780. Efficacy of oral administration of UP780 at 2000 mg/kg and its constituents (aloesin at 80 mg/kg and Qmatrix at 1920 mg/kg) were evaluated in this model. Glyburide, a sulfonylurea drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was used at 5 mg/kg as a positive control. Effect of UP780 on non-diabetic normal mice was also addressed. Mice administered intraperitoneal alloxan monohydrate developed progressive type-1 diabetes like symptom. After 4 weeks of daily oral administration, reductions of 35.9%, 17.2% and 11.6% in fasting blood glucose levels were observed for UP780, the UP780 Aloe vera inner leaf gel polysaccharide preparation without chromone (Qmatrix), and Aloesin (UP394), treated animals respectively, compared to vehicle treated animals. UP780 has no impact on blood glucose level of non-diabetic healthy mice. UP780 showed statistically significant improvement for blood glucose clearance in oral glucose tolerance tests. Similarly, enhanced improvement in plasma insulin level and statistically significant reduction in triglyceride level was also observed for animals treated with the composition. Conclusion: These findings suggest that UP780, a chromone standardized Aloe based composition, could possibly be used as a natural supplement alternative to facilitate maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels.

Yu, B. P., Herlihy, J., and Ikeno, Y. (n.d.). The effects of lifelong Aloe ingestion on aging and pathology. Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to initiate a systematic and scientific investigation of the effects of long-term Aloe ingestion on laboratory rats.

Yu, Z., Jin, C., Xin, M., and JianMin, H. (2009). Effect of Aloe vera polysaccharides on immunity and antioxidant activities in oral ulcer animal models. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75, 307-311. 

Abstract: Aloe vera polysaccharides have traditionally been used in Asian cultures as medicinal plants to enhance immunity and reduce oxidative injury. The current investigation was conducted to examine the effects of A. vera polysaccharides on various in vivo parameters of innate immunity and antioxidant enzymes activities in oral ulcer animals. Forty wistar rats were randomly divided into the following 1 control group and 3 experimental groups (each group contained 10 rats). Rats in experimental groups were orally fed by A. vera polysaccharides. Rats in control group were orally fed by same volume of saline. The results showed that A. vera polysaccharides enhanced immunity activity and exerted antioxidant effects compared with vehicle controls. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that A. vera polysaccharides are effective in enhancing innate immunity and suppressing oxidative injury in oral ulcer animals.

Yun, N., Lee, C., and Lee, S. (2009). Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 1341-1348. 

Abstract: Sepsis is an acute life-threatening clinical condition and remains the major cause of death in intensive care units. The primary pathophysiologic event central to the septic response is an overwhelming activation of the inflammatory system and countervailing response from the anti-inflammatory system. However, the cause of this perturbation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that Aloe vera therapeutically reverses the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The administration of Aloe vera ameliorated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, as evidenced by the serum levels of biochemical parameters and histological changes. In order to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Aloe vera, the levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA at various time points. The increases in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were attenuated by Aloe vera. In vivo administration of Aloe vera also markedly enhanced bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that Aloe vera could be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of sepsis.

(El) Zawahry, M., Hegazy, M. R., and Helal, M. (1973, January/February). Use of Aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. International Journal of Dermatology, 12, 68-73.

Abstract: Our report deals with Aloe's use locally in chronic leg ulcers, seborrhea, acne vulgaris, alopecia (hair fall), and alopecia areata.

Zhang, L., and Tizard, I. R. (1996). Activation of a mouse macrophage cell line by Acemannan: The major carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera gel. Immunopharmacology, 35, 119-128.

Abstract: The effects of acemannan on the mouse macrophage cell were investigated. The results suggest that acemannan may function, at least in part, through macrophage activation.

Zhong, J. S., Huanga, Y. Y., Zhang, T. H., Liu, Y. P., Ding, W. J., Wu, X. F., Xie, Z. Y., Luo, H. B., and Wan, J. Z. (2015). Natural phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors from the leaf skin of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Fitoterapia, 100, 68-74. 

Abstract: The ethanolic extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaf skin showed inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D), which is a therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new anthrones, 6ʹ-O-acetyl-aloin B (9)and 6ʹ-O-acetyl-aloin A (11), one new chromone, aloeresin K (8), together with thirteen known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS. All of the isolates were screened for their inhibitory activity against PDE4D using tritium-labeled adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic monophosphate (3H-cAMP) as substrate. Compounds 13 and 14 were identified as PDE4D inhibitors, with their IC50 values of 9.25 and 4.42 μM, respectively. These achievements can provide evidences for the use of A. barbadensis leaf skin as functional feed additives for anti-inflammatory purpose.


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