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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]
Dahiya, P., and Purkayastha, S. (2012, September). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant bacteria from clinical isolates. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(5), 443-450.
Abstract: The in vitro antibacterial activity of various solvents and water extracts of aloe vera, neem, bryophyllum, lemongrass, tulsi, oregano, rosemary and thyme was assessed on 10 multi-drug resistant clinical isolates from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and two standard strains including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The zone of inhibition as determined by agar well diffusion method varied with the plant extract, the solvent used for extraction, and the organism tested. Klebsiella pneumoniae 2, Escherichia coli 3 and Staphylococcus aureus 3 were resistant to the plant extracts tested. Moreover, water extracts did not restrain the growth of any tested bacteria. Ethanol and methanol extracts were found to be more potent being capable of exerting significant inhibitory activities against majority of the bacteria investigated. Staphylococcus aureus 1 was the most inhibited bacterial isolate with 24 extracts (60%) inhibiting its growth whereas Escherichia coli 2 exhibited strong resistance being inhibited by only 11 extracts (28%). The results obtained in the agar diffusion plates were in fair correlation with that obtained in the minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tulsi, oregano, rosemary and aloe vera extracts was found in the range of 1.56-6.25 mg/ml for the multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested whereas higher values (6.25-25 mg/ml) were obtained against the multi-drug resistant isolates Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 and Escherichia coli 1 and 2. Qualitative phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of tannins and saponins in all plants tested. Thin layer chromatography and bioautography agar overlay assay of ethanol extracts of neem, tulsi and aloe vera indicated flavonoids and tannins as major active compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract: The best aloe is a preparation which maximizes the desired constituents, minimizes any ingredient with negative effects, maintains the constituents in an unaltered and active form, preserves the actions and benefits, and is present in the final product in amounts which, indeed, can bring about the desired result when the product is used as recommended. The type of aloe leaf constituent desired can be obtained by various handling, processing and preserving systems; the ultimate use determining the best approaches to be utilized. Super-Strength and "cold process" recommended.
Abstract: Aloe used in intestinal disorders, atherosclerosis and coronary hearth disease, anti-cancer actions, immunity
Abstract: Dr. Danhof is regarded by many as the leading authority on the Aloe vera plant. This paper gives the fundamentals of how the polysaccharide molecules help the body in the healing process.
Abstract: Discourages the use of the term mucopolysaccharides and encourages the use of the term polysaccharides when discussing Aloe vera.
Abstract: Evidence will be presented that suggests increasing credibility for the benefits of ingested aloe gel.
Abstract: General comments about Aloe including the structure of the leaf, how Aloe vera is made, skin penetration by mucilage and aloe vera, the aloe leaf assay, and the aloe vera cell.
Davis, R. H., Di Donato, J. J., Hartman, G. M., and Haas, R. C. (1994, February). Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 84(2), 77-81.
Davis, R. H., Di Donato, J. J., Hartman, G. M., and Haas, R. C. (1992). Mannose-6-phosphate: Anti-inflammatory and activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. Submitted for 1993 William J. Stickle Award.
Abstract: Aloe vera improves wound healing and inhibits inflammation. Since mannose-6-phosphate is the major sugar in the Aloe gel, the authors examined the possibility of its being an active growth substance. Mice receiving 300 mc/kg of mannose-6-phosphate had improved wound healing over saline controls. This dose also had anti-inflammatory activity. The function of mannose-6-phosphate in A. vera is discussed.
Abstract: This study attempts to define the role of the two major sugar constituents in the Aloe plant, mannose and glucose. We analyzed these sugars in the phosphorylated form. The significance of this study lies in the ability of the phosphorylated sugars to fit the growth factor receptors on the surface of the fibroblast.
Davis, R. H., Leitner, M. G., and Russo, J. M. (1988, February). Aloe vera - a natural approach for treating wounds, edema, and pain in diabetes. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association,78(2), 60-68.
Abstract: In this research project, the authors extrapolate their earlier findings, and better characterize Aloe vera as a therapeutic alternative for physicians to consider. They attempt to evaluate A. vera as an effective treatment for some of the most critical manifestations of diabetes.
Davis, R. H., Leitner, M. G., and Russo, J. M. (1987, November). Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera as measured by ear swelling. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 77(11), 610-612.
Abstract: The authors believe that this study provides a major breakthrough for Aloe and an effective treatment against inflammation for podiatrists.
Abstract: Our laboratory has shown that Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) was effective against adjuvant induced arthritis. There are no known side effects of the plant gel. In the present study, we attempted to show the comparative biological activity of Aloe vera as measured by standard anti-inflammatory tests: polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, mustard induced edema, anti-fibrosis and wound healing.
Abstract: Aloe vera inhibits inflammation and adjuvant-induced arthritis. The authors’ laboratory has shown that A. vera improves wound healing, which suggests that it does not act like an adrenal steroid. Diabetic animals were used in this study because of their poor wound healing and anti-inflammatory capabilities. The anti-inflammatory activity of A. vera and gibberellin was measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by measuring the inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration into a site of gelatin-induced inflammation over a dose range of 2 to 100 mg/kg. Both Aloe and gibberellin similarly inhibited inflammation in a dose-response manner. These data tend to suggest that gibberellin or a gibberellin-like substance is an active anti-inflammatory component in A. vera.
Abstract: This study attempts to use Aloe vera with hydrocortisone acetate to improve the effectiveness of this type of therapy. Inflammation is a major component of many of the conditions treated by the podiatrist. The significance of this study lies in the ability to increase steroid potency by using a natural substance.
Davis, R. H., Rosenthal, K. Y., Cesario, L. R., and Rouw, Gregory A. (1989, August). Processed Aloe vera administered topically inhibits inflammation. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 79(8), 395-397.
Abstract: Aloe vera preparations were evaluated for topical anti-inflammatory activity using the croton oil-induced edema assay. These results may be used as a baseline to assess the biologic activity of A. vera in the treatment of inflammation by podiatric physicians.
Davis, R. H., Shipiro, E., and Agnew, P. S. (1985, May). Topical effect of Aloe with ribonucleic acid and vitamin C on adjuvant arthritis. Journal of the American Podiatry Association, 75(5), 229-237.
Abstract: The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic topical activity of combined ascorbic acid, aloe extract, and RNA in hydrophilic cream were evaluated in this study. The results may provide an effective topical treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
Duansak, D., Somboonwong, J., and Patumraj, S. (2003). Effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte adhesion and TNF-α and IL-6 levels in burn wounded rats. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 29, 239-246.
Abstract: The effects of Aloe vera on microcirculation and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were investigated in rats after inducing burn. Seventy-two male Wistar Furth rats were equally divided into four groups as follow: controls (CON), untreated burn-wound rats (BURN), normal saline-treated burn-wound rats (BURN-NSS) and Aloe vera-treated burn-wound rats (BURN-ALOE). The animals in each group were equally subdivided into three subgroups for the study on day 3, 7 and 14 post-burn. Dorsal skinfold chamber preparation and intravital fluorescence microscopic technique were performed to examine leukocyte adhesion on postcapillary venules. ELISA techniques were performed to examine serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. It was found that the amount of leukocyte adhesion was significantly reduced in the BURN-ALOE group compared to rats in the BURN group on day 14. Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were also decreased significantly compared to BURN at all three monitored time points. Aloe vera could inhibit the inflammatory process following burn injury, as characterized by the reduction of leukocyte adhesion, as well as those pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Abstract: The use of plants in medicine and in the cosmetic and toiletry industry is as old as man. Our certainty can only go back as far as the earliest recorded knowledge, but in those writings from ancient China and the time of the Egyptians we find countless references. Plants were used for everything from religious incense, to herbal medicine and cosmetics. Some of these old recipes are examined for their potential efficacy and to see whether we can substantiate their claims using today’s knowledge and experience. The paper considers a number of European preparations from the Middle Ages to the present day, examines the plants used and the phytochemicals responsible for their benefit. Typically (for the present day scenario) Aloe vera, Chamomile, and other plants used in modern medicine are discussed.
Abstract: This is a remarkable report on different species as published by the British in the history of principal drug vegetable origin that they found in India. Its century old origin makes it a collector's item. It is not easy reading but has some interesting history.
Eamlamnam, K., Patumraj, S., Visedopas, N., and Thong-Ngam, D. (2006, April 7). Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12(13), 2034-2039.
Abstract: To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric micro-circulatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing. Methods: Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n = 48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as control group, group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4 as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera . The rats from each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence, TNF-α and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer by 20% acetic acid. Results: On day 1 after induction of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the control group. The level of TNF-α was elevated and the level of IL-10 was reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera , leukocyte adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule. The level of IL-10 was elevated, but the level of TNF-α had no significant difference. On day 8, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-α were still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level. The level of IL-10 was still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore, histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Conclusion: Administration of 20% acetic acid can induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level and reduce IL-10 level. Aloe vera treatment can reduce leukocyte adherence and TNF-α level, elevate IL-10 level and promote gastric ulcer healing.
Ehsani, M., Marashi, M. A., Zabihi, E., Issazadeh, M., and Khafri, S. (2013, Summer). A comparison between antibacterial activity of propolis and aloe vera on enterococcus faecalis (an in vitro study). Int J Mol Cell Med, 2(3), 110-117.
Abstract: Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment. We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S. aureus and S. mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.
Abstract: Questions and answers regarding irritable bowel syndrome and other gastric diseases.
Farahnejad, Z., Ghazanfari, T., and Yaraee, R. (2011). Immunomodulatory effects of Aloe vera and its fractions on response of macrophages against Candida albicans. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 33(4), 676-681.
Abstract: Natural products are important resources in traditional medicine and have been long used for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Medicinal plants have immunomodulatory properties. Aloe is one of the herbal medicines widely used in natural treatment and alternative therapy for various types of diseases. Aloe vera has been shown to modulate the immune response. Macrophages have been shown to play an essential role as the first line of defense against invading pathogen. Candida albicans is a communal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of A. vera extract and its fractions on infected macrophages with C. albicans. Viability of intraperitoneal macrophages was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Cell viability of infected macrophages was increased by the extract and dose of some isolated fractions dependently. The extract as well as R100, R50, R30, and R10 fractions of A. vera significantly increased cell viability of macrophages in most doses. R5 and F5 fractions showed no significant difference in comparison with control group. Further studies in animal models and human are necessary to clarify the modulatory effects of A. vera on macrophage function. Isolation and purification of A. vera components are also needed to find out the effective molecules.
Abstract: A method of reducing depolymerization and/or deterioration of aqueous dispersions of aloe polysaccharide compositions by the effects of bacteria, fungi and enzymes, comprising mixing the aloe polysaccharide or its aqueous dispersion with a gum selected from a group consisting of guar gum and locust bean gum, either in dry form or in aqueous dispersions of the gum.
Farkas, A. (1963). Topical medicament including polyuronide derived from Aloe. Chemical Abstracts, 60, 378g-379a. Patent on one of the active ingredients of Aloe vera, U.S. Patent No. 3,103,466, received on September 10, 1963. Claim was filed on December 23, 1954.
Abstract: The product, while quickly relieving pain, particularly from burns, appears thereby to have an analgesic and anesthetic effect; particularly in the type of healing rapidly promoted by the composition, it appears to have a detoxifying effect that may be the results of the reducing action inherent in the polyuronide without causing irritation, because burns, even second and third degree burns, become healed unusually rapidly, and the skin re-forms with rapid granulating, without scab formation.
Abstract: The main thrusts of this article are to point out the value of drugs derived form higher plants, to point out the importance of these drugs to physicians, and to suggest several reasons why higher plants essentially are being neglected in new drug development research programs.
Abstract: Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
Abstract: A complete chemical characterisation of Aloe vera plant (Aloe barbadensis Miller) was carried out from the dissection of the plant whole leaves in filets and skin. In addition, a mucilaginous gel extracted from the filets was also characterised. Extraction with ethanol of lyophilised Aloe fractions (AIRs) allowed to concentrate the major fraction composed of carbohydrates up to 80%. The composition of the main type of polysaccharides present in the Aloe AIRs was determined. Mannose and cellulosic glucose were the major polysaccharide components in all AIRs, significant amounts of pectic polysaccharides were also detected. Sequential extraction of polysaccharides present in Aloe vera plant portions, revealed that two main types of mannose-containing polymers were present in the Aloe vera plant. The polysaccharide detected in the filet and in the gel fractions corresponded to a storage polysaccharide located within the protoplast of the parenchymatous cells. Its structural and compositional features corresponded to the active polysaccharide known as acemannan. On the contrary, in the skin tissue, the mannosyl residues arose from a structural polysaccharide located within the cell wall matrix. Structural and compositional differences between both polymers were confirmed by methylation analysis. The fact that acemannan is a reserve polysaccharide might help to explain most of the compositional variations reported in the literature for Aloe vera carbohydrates. Further, sequential extraction allowed us to identify several pectic polysaccharides, rich in uronic acids, with a composition similar to that of several antitumoral polymers found in different plant tissues.
Abstract: Lists some of the benefits of Aloe and also some of the 75 plus nutritional substances. "What is also apparent is that the plant itself is better than the sum of the individual components. In some way the synergistic balance out performs isolated components."
Fink, M. P., Kameneva, M., Macias, C. A., and Tenhunen, J. J. (2014, July 26). Fluid derived from aloe plant prolongs life after hemorrhagic shock in animal study. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine.
Abstract: A novel resuscitation fluid derived from aloe vera that was developed by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh’s McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine has the potential to save the lives of patients with massive blood loss, according to results of an animal study published in the August edition of the medical journal Shock. The findings could have a significant impact on the treatment of hemorrhagic shock caused by both civilian and military trauma.
Abstract: This paper deals with a component of the human epidermis, the mucopolysaccharides. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that these compounds are probably essential for the synthesis of normal keratin. Certain types of hair loss may be due to disturbances in the hypothetical mucopolysaccharide-keratin metabolic chain.
A**bstract: Treatment of nocturnal incontinence in children by Aloe vera.
Fonseca, Y. M., Dias Catini, C., Vicentini, F. T. M. C., Nomizo, A., Fernanda Gerlach, R., and Fonseca, M. J. V. (2010). Protective effect of Calendula of cinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: Evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127, 596-601.
Abstract: Background and purpose: Calendula of cinalis owers have long been employed time in folk therapy, and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the owers. The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal in ammatory diseases of several origins. The recommended doses are a function both of the type and severity of the condition to be treated and the individual condition of each patient. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential use of Calendula of cinalis extract to prevent UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress in skin. Methods: Firstly, the physico-chemical composition of marigold extract (ME) (hydroalcoholic extract) was assessed and the in vitro antioxidant ef cacy was determined using different methodologies. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated in L929 and HepG2 cells with the MTT assay. Finally, the in vivo protective effect of ME against UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mice was evaluated by deter- mining reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and monitoring the secretion/activity of metalloproteinases. Results and conclusions: The polyphenol, avonoid, rutin and narcissin contents found in ME were 28.6 mg/g, 18.8 mg/g, 1.6 mg/g and 12.2 mg/g, respectively and evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ME against different radicals. Cytoxicity experiments demonstrated that ME was not cytotoxic for L929 and HepG2 cells at concentrations less than or equal to of 15 mg/mL. However, concentrations greater than or equal to 30 mg/mL, toxic effects were observed. Finally, oral treatment of hairless mice with 150 and 300 mg/kg of ME maintained GSH levels close to non-irradiated control mice. In addition, this extract affects the activity/secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB irradiation. However, additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the protective effects of ME for skin.
Fortak, W. (1964). Biostymin, extract of Aloe histologic and histochemical studies on the influence of biostymin on regeneration of hepatic parenchyma in white rats. Archivum Immunologiae El Therapiae Experimentalis,12, 80-95.
Abstract: A study on healing of injured white rats by a product developed in Poland from Aloe juice, called Biostymin, meaning biogenic stimulator, made from Aloe aborescens.
Fortak, W., Karasek, M., and Kolaszynski, J. (1964). Biostymin: Aloe extract histologic and histochemical studies on the mechanism of action of biostymin in the animal body. Archivum Immunologiae El Therapiae Experimentalis, 12, 96-105.
Abstract: This study was undertaken with the idea of elucidating, by means of morphochemical methods, the effect of Biostymin on the reticuleondothelial system of the spleen and the action of the drug on the adrenals in white rats.
Abstract: general background and information on Aloe vera, specifically discussing aloe as an immuno-stimulator, tumor inhibitor, wound healer, cosmetic agent, and its use as a laxative as well as information on growing aloe vera.
Abstract: Discusses proven effects of Aloe vera in treating burns, gastric ulcers, and precancerous lesions.
Abstract: This report details a very interesting approach to explain the effectiveness of Aloe on healing wounds and being anti-inflammatory. They found that there were some biologically active proteins contained in Aloe and that these may be involved in the healing process.
Abstract: As pharmacological evidence for the anti-inflammatory action of aloe, we have found that aloe extract contains bradykinase activity.
Abstract: Technical report from Japanese source. The paper deals with the anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera and shows a very encouraging indication for reducing inflammation in wounds.
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