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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


De Leo, A., and Camarrone, V. (1968). Ascorbic acid content of developing flowers and bracteal leaves of various Aloe species. Lav. Inst. Bot. Giardino Colon. Palermo, 23, 5 (Chem. Abs. 73:363905n).

Diez-Martínez, S. D. (1981). La Zabila. Communicado No. 46 sobre recursos bióticos potenciales del país. INIREB, Mexico.

Dioscordes, P. (78 AD). Quoted by Reynolds , Gilbert W. (1966, September). The Aloes of Tropical Africa and Madagascar.

Djeraba, A., et al. (2000). In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 22, 279-292.

Dyniock, W. (1893). 1893 British pharmacographica indica on Aloe vera. pharmacographica Indica, 111, 467-472.

Abstract: This is a remarkable report on different species as published by the British in the history of principal drug vegetable origin that they found in India. Its century old origin makes it a collector's item. It is not easy reading but has some interesting history.

Edwards, C. A., et al. (1987). Viscosity of food gums determined in vitro related to their hypoglycemic actions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,46, 72-77.

El Zawahry, M., Hegazy, Rm. Rashad, and Helal, M. (1973). Use of aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. Int. Journal of Dermatology, 12(1), 68.

Evening Mail. (2000, June 13). Health and life: Dear doctor. Birmingham Evening Mail Birmingham, England.

Abstract: Questions and answers regarding irritable bowel syndrome and other gastric diseases.

Fairbairn, J. W. (1952). Recent advances in the knowledge of the drugs containing anthracene derivatives. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad, 87, 679-683.

Fairbairn, J. W. (1964). The anthracene derivatives of medicinal plants. Lloydia,27, 79-87.

Fantus, B. (August 1922). Aloes as medicine. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 11, 616ff.

Farkas, A. (1967). Aloe polysaccharide composition and its preparation. United States Patent Office, 3,360,511, patented December 26, 1967.

Abstract: A method of reducing depolymerization and/or deterioration of aqueous dispersions of aloe polysaccharide compositions by the effects of bacteria, fungi and enzymes, comprising mixing the aloe polysaccharide or its aqueous dispersion with a gum selected from a group consisting of guar gum and locust bean gum, either in dry form or in aqueous dispersions of the gum.

Farkas, A. (Dr.). (1963). Topical medicament including polyuronide derived from Aloe. Chemical Abstracts, 60, 378g-379a. Patent on one of the active ingredients of Aloe vera, U.S. Patent No. 3,103,466, received on September 10, 1963. Claim was filed on December 23, 1954.

Abstract: The product, while quickly relieving pain, particularly from burns, appears thereby to have an analgesic and anesthetic effect; particularly in the type of healing rapidly promoted by the composition, it appears to have a detoxifying effect that may be the results of the reducing action inherent in the polyuronide without causing irritation, because burns, even second and third degree burns, become healed unusually rapidly, and the skin re-forms with rapid granulating, without scab formation.

Farnsworth, N. R., and Morris, R. W. (1976, March-April). Higher plants: The sleeping giant of drug development. American Journal of Pharmacy, 46-52.

Abstract: The main thrusts of this article are to point out the value of drugs derived form higher plants, to point out the importance of these drugs to physicians, and to suggest several reasons why higher plants essentially are being neglected in new drug development research programs.

Feil, C. (1980). Aloe Cosmetics. Bestways ( USA), August, 1980, 108.

Feily, A., and Namazi, M. R. (2009, Feb). Aloe vera in dermatology: A brief review. G Ital Dermatol Venereol, 114(a), 85-91.

Abstract: Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Feizi, T. (1987). Significance of carbohydrate components of cell surfaces, autoimmunity and autoimmune disease, Ciba Foundation Symposium 129, 43-58, Wiley, Chichester.

Finbar, M. (Dr.). (2002, November 6). Health watch: Alternative path: Aloe, aloe what's all this then? The News Letter. Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Abstract: Lists some of the benefits of Aloe and also some of the 75 plus nutritional substances. "What is also apparent is that the plant itself is better than the sum of the individual components. In some way the synergistic balance out performs isolated components."

Fine, A. F., and Brown, S. (1938). Cultivation and clinical application of Aloe vera leaf. Radiology, 31(6), 735-736.

Flagg, J. (1959, October). Aloe vera gel in dermatological preparations. American Perfumer and Aromatics,74(4), 27-28, 61.

Flesch, P. (MD, PhD). (1959, January). Mucopolysaccharides in Human Epidermis. The Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, X(1), 154-159.

Abstract: This paper deals with a component of the human epidermis, the mucopolysaccharides. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that these compounds are probably essential for the synthesis of normal keratin. Certain types of hair loss may be due to disturbances in the hypothetical mucopolysaccharide-keratin metabolic chain.

Fmoin, A. (N.D.). Nocturnal incontinence (urine dribbling) in children treated by Aloe extract. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data, by Medexport, USSR, Moscow.

Abstract: Treatment of nocturnal incontinence in children by Aloe vera.

Fonseca, Y. M., Dias Catini, C., Vicentini, F. T. M. C., Nomizo, A., Fernanda Gerlach, R., and Fonseca, M. J. V. (2010). Protective effect of Calendula of cinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: Evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127, 596-601.

Abstract: Background and purpose: Calendula of cinalis owers have long been employed time in folk therapy, and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the owers. The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal in ammatory diseases of several origins. The recommended doses are a function both of the type and severity of the condition to be treated and the individual condition of each patient. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential use of Calendula of cinalis extract to prevent UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress in skin. Methods: Firstly, the physico-chemical composition of marigold extract (ME) (hydroalcoholic extract) was assessed and the in vitro antioxidant ef cacy was determined using different methodologies. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated in L929 and HepG2 cells with the MTT assay. Finally, the in vivo protective effect of ME against UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mice was evaluated by deter- mining reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and monitoring the secretion/activity of metalloproteinases. Results and conclusions: The polyphenol, avonoid, rutin and narcissin contents found in ME were 28.6 mg/g, 18.8 mg/g, 1.6 mg/g and 12.2 mg/g, respectively and evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ME against different radicals. Cytoxicity experiments demonstrated that ME was not cytotoxic for L929 and HepG2 cells at concentrations less than or equal to of 15 mg/mL. However, concentrations greater than or equal to 30 mg/mL, toxic effects were observed. Finally, oral treatment of hairless mice with 150 and 300 mg/kg of ME maintained GSH levels close to non-irradiated control mice. In addition, this extract affects the activity/secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB irradiation. However, additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the protective effects of ME for skin.

Fortak, Waldemar. (1964). Biostymin, extract of Aloe histologic and histochemical studies on the influence of biostymin on regeneration of hepatic parenchyma in white rats. Archivum Immunologiae El Therapiae Experimentalis,12, 80-95.

Abstract: A study on healing of injured white rats by a product developed in Poland from Aloe juice, called Biostymin, meaning biogenic stimulator, made from Aloe aborescens.

Fortak, Waldemar, Karasek, Michal, and Kolaszynski, Jacek. (1964). Biostymin: Aloe extract histologic and histochemical studies on the mechanism of action of biostymin in the animal body. Archivum Immunologiae El Therapiae Experimentalis, 12, 96-105.

Abstract: This study was undertaken with the idea of elucidating, by means of morphochemical methods, the effect of Biostymin on the reticuleondothelial system of the spleen and the action of the drug on the adrenals in white rats.

Foster, G. B. (1961). Aloe Vera First Aid Plant. The Herb Grower Magazine, 14, 16-23.

Foster, G. B. (1965). Aloe again. Garden Journal, New York Botanical Garden, 15, 239-240.

Foster, G. B. (1973). Herbs for Every Garden, 2nd ed., New York City: E. P. Dutton and Co., 96-99.

Foster, S. (N.D.). Aloe vera: The succulent with skin-soothing, cell-protecting properties.

Abstract: general background and information on Aloe vera, specifically discussing aloe as an immuno-stimulator, tumor inhibitor, wound healer, cosmetic agent, and its use as a laxative as well as information on growing aloe vera.

Fox, T. R. (1990, December). Aloe vera: Revered, mysterious healer. Health Foods Business, 45ff.

Abstract: Part of a Consumer Education Series. Discusses the ability to quickly and completely heal skin tissue.

Fujita, K., Beppu, H., Kawai, K., and Shinpo, K. (1992, Winter). Ancient herb in new form delivers proven effects. Aloe Today, 9-13.

Abstract: Discusses proven effects of Aloe vera in treating burns, gastric ulcers, and precancerous lesions.

Fujita, K., Suzuki, I., Ochiai, J., Shinpo, J., Inoue, S., and Saito, H. (1978). Specific reaction of Aloe extract with serum proteins of various animals. Experientia,34, 523-524.

Abstract: This report details a very interesting approach to explain the effectiveness of Aloe on healing wounds and being anti-inflammatory. They found that there were some biologically active proteins contained in Aloe and that these may be involved in the healing process.

Fujita, K., Teradaira, R., and Nagatsu, T. (1976). Bradykinase activity of Aloe extract. Biochemical Pharmacology, 25, 205.

Abstract: As pharmacological evidence for the anti-inflammatory action of aloe, we have found that aloe extract contains bradykinase activity.

Fujita, K., Ito, S., Teradaira, R., and Beppu, H. (1979). Properties of a carboxypeptidase from Aloe. Biochemical Pharmacology,28, 1261-1262.

Fukuda, M., et al. (N.D.) Molecular Glycobiology, Oxford University Press, 1-52.

Furta, K., and Teradaira, R. (N.D.). Bradykinase activity of Aloe extract. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen, 61-63.

Abstract: Technical report from Japanese source. The paper deals with the anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera and shows a very encouraging indication for reducing inflammation in wounds.

Gaby, A. R. (2004, October 1). Aloe vera for ulcerative colitis. (Literature Review and Commentary). Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients.

Abstract: Although previous studies have shown that Aloe vera extracts have anti-inflammatory activity, this is the first study to provide scientific support for Aloe vera as a treatment for ulcerative colitis.

Galban, E. S. (1952). Florida herbs and plants. Herbalist,18, 16-23.

Gale Group. (1998, November 1). Aloe vera: Actually two very different herbs in one. Environmental Nutrition.

Abstract: Aloe gel and juice are distinctly different, with different properties and uses.

Gale Group. (2000, October 15). Cleopatra knew beauty benefits of Aloe vera. Sunday Mail. Glasgow, Scotland.

Abstract: Briefly discusses history and use of Aloe vera on the skin and internally and specific reasons it benefits the body.

Gale Group. (2004, November 1). Research links Aloe to bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Nutraceuticals World.

Abstract: Research has linked Aloe to the bioavailability of both water- and fat-soluble vitamins, which remain elevated in the bloodstream for 24 hours.

Gale Group. (2005, November 1). Aloe vera coating for fruits and vegetables. (Update). Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World.

Abstract: Aloe vera gel as a healthy preservative coating on fruits and vegetables. The gel also offers potential environmental benefits.

Gasau-zade, A. I., and Ali-zade, R. A. (N.A.). On application of Aloe extract with Novocain in complex therapy of periodontosis (amphodontosis). In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen.

Abstract: Discusses application of Aloe extract with Novocain in treating periodontosis.

Gates, G. (1975, October). Aloe vera: My favorite plant. American Horticulturist,64, 37.

Gehlot, P., and Goyal, P. K. (2007). Rectification of radiation-induced damage in Swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE). Iran. J. Radiat, 5(2), 71-78.

Abstract: From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radio protective effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals viz. 12 hrs, 24 hrs. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radio protective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract.

Gerasisov, A. (N.D.). Treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by inhalation of Aloe extract. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data, Medexport, USSR, Moscow.

Abstract: There is no data in the literature on using aloe for inhalation; the present communication presents results of the first observation of this kind.

Gjerstad, G. (1969). An appraisal of the Aloe vera juice. American Perfumer and Cosmetics,84, 43-46.

Gjerstad, G. (1971). Chemical studies of Aloe vera juice I: Amino acid analysis. Advancing Frontiers of Plant Sciences,28, 311-315, (Biol. Abs. 54:33019).

Abstract: The objective of this study was to ascertain the chemical composition of this alleged wonder drug.

Gjerstad, G, and Riner, T. D. (1968, March-April). Current status of Aloe as a cure-all. American Journal of Pharmacy,140(2), 58-64.

Abstract: Dr. Gjerstad notes that the general public accepts much of what Aloe can do for them, but there needs to be more scientific studies done.

Goff, S. (PhD), and Levenstein, I. (PhD). (1964). Measuring the effects of topical preparations upon the healing of skin wounds. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 15, 509-518.

Abstract: Under controlled conditions, with the mouse as the experimental animal, it has been shown that the tensile strength of a standardized skin wound increased as the wound healed. The effects of several preparations applied topically to the standard wound were demonstrated by tensile strength measurements.

Goldberg, H. C. (1944). The Aloe vera plant. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology,49, 46.

Gottshall, R. Y., Lucas, E. H., Lickfeldt, A., and Roberts, J. M. (1949). The occurrence of antibacterial substances active against mycobacterium tuberculosis in seed plants. Journal of Clinical Investigation,28, 920-923.

Abstract: The antibacterial activity against M. tuberculosis, strain H37, of 211 plant samples from 161 species belonging to 53 families of seed plants was determined by serial dilution tests.

Gowda, D. C., Neelisiddaiah, B., and Anjaneyalu, Y. V. (1979). Structural studies of polysaccharides from Aloe vera. Carbohydrate Research,72, 201-205.

Grayson, T. H., and Linander, C. H. (1983). Aloe Vera’s Golden Age, Graylin Enterprises.


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