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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


Gaby, A. R. (2004, October 1). Aloe vera for ulcerative colitis. (Literature Review & Commentary). Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients.

Abstract: Although previous studies have shown that Aloe vera extracts have anti-inflammatory activity, this is the first study to provide scientific support for Aloe vera as a treatment for ulcerative colitis.

Gale Group. (2005, November 1). Aloe vera coating for fruits and vegetables. (Update). Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World.

Abstract: Aloe vera gel as a healthy preservative coating on fruits and vegetables. The gel also offers potential environmental benefits.

Gale Group. (2004, November 1). Research links Aloe to bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Nutraceuticals World.

Abstract: Research has linked Aloe to the bioavailability of both water- and fat-soluble vitamins, which remain elevated in the bloodstream for 24 hours.

Gale Group. (1998, November 1). Aloe vera: Actually two very different herbs in one. Environmental Nutrition.

Abstract: Aloe gel and juice are distinctly different, with different properties and uses.

Gasau-zade, A. I., and Ali-zade, R. A. (n.d.). On application of Aloe extract with Novocain in complex therapy of periodontosis (amphodontosis). In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen.

Abstract: Discusses application of Aloe extract with Novocain in treating periodontosis.

Gehlot, P., and Goyal, P. K. (2007). Rectification of radiation-induced damage in Swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE). Iran. J. Radiat, 5(2), 71-78.

Abstract: From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radio protective effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals viz. 12 hrs, 24 hrs. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radio protective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract.

Gerasisov, A. (n.d.). Treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by inhalation of Aloe extract. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data, Medexport, USSR, Moscow.

Abstract: There is no data in the literature on using aloe for inhalation; the present communication presents results of the first observation of this kind.

Gjerstad, G. (1971). Chemical studies of Aloe vera juice I: Amino acid analysis. Advancing Frontiers of Plant Sciences,28, 311-315, (Biol. Abs. 54:33019).

Abstract: The objective of this study was to ascertain the chemical composition of this alleged wonder drug.

Gjerstad, G., and Riner, T. D. (1968, March-April). Current status of Aloe as a cure-all. American Journal of Pharmacy, 140(2), 58-64.

Abstract: Dr. Gjerstad notes that the general public accepts much of what Aloe can do for them, but there needs to be more scientific studies done.

Gottshall, R. Y., Lucas, E. H., Lickfeldt, A., and Roberts, J. M. (1949). The occurrence of antibacterial substances active against mycobacterium tuberculosis in seed plants. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 28, 920-923.

Abstract: The antibacterial activity against M. tuberculosis, strain H37, of 211 plant samples from 161 species belonging to 53 families of seed plants was determined by serial dilution tests.

Gupta, R. K., Gupta D., Bhaskar D. J., Yadav A., Obaid, K., and Mishra, S. (2014, April). Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4 day plaque re-growth model: Randomized control trial. Ethiop J Health Sci., 24(2), 139-145. 

Abstract: Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). Material and Methods: A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100)-chlorhexidene group and saline water-placebo (n=100). To begin with, gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. Results: The results showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.

Gyanchandani, N. D., and Nigam, I. C. (1969, July). Anthraquinone drugs, II: Inadvertent acetylation of Aloe-emodin during preparation of aglycones from crude drugs: UV, IR, and NMR spectra of the products. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,58(7), 833-835.

Abstract: Hydrolysis of anthraquinone glycosides with acetic acid leads to a partial acetylation of aloe-emodin, one of the liberated aglycones. With the aid of UV, IR, and NMR spectra, this hitherto unreported compound has been characterized as aloe-emodin monoacetate. The same compound is also formed when the simultaneous oxidation and hydrolysis of the glycosides is effected with FeCl 3 in presence of HCl and the resultant aglycones extracted with ethyl acetate.

Habeeb, F., Stables, G., Bradbury, F., Nong, S., Cameron, P., Plevin, R., and Ferro, V. A. (2007). The inner gel component of Aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells. Methods, 42, 388-393. 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the inner leaf gel component of Aloe barbadensis Miller. A simple in vitro assay was designed to determine the effect of the inner gel on bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, namely TNF-α and IL-1β, from peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with Shigella flexneri or LPS. This report describes the suppression of both cytokines with a freeze-dried inner gel powder and a commercial health drink from the same source. Comparison was made with a human monocytic cell-line (THP-1 cells) and a similar trend in responses was demonstrated.

Hagan, P. (2005, October 11). Plant juice ended my stomach agony: One tiny glass of Aloe vera a day could banish colitis symptoms. Good Health. The Daily Mail. London, England.

Abstract: A drink made from the Aloe vera plant is helping patients control the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, a disease that affects the bowels.

Halle, M. (2000, May 21). Health juice "danger" for mums-to-be. (News). Sunday Mirror London, England.

Abstract: Aloe vera is said to be highly effective at relieving such conditions as irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, ulcers and hiatus hernia. Article cautions women who are pregnant because of the possible aloin content in Aloe vera juice. [Note that Desert Harvest aloe vera products do not contain aloin or any of the other anthraquinones that cause problem during pregnancy.]

Hanley, D. C., Solomon, W. A. B., Saffran, B., and Davis, R. H. (1982, June). The evaluation of natural substances in the treatment of adjuvant arthritis. Journal of the American Podiatry Association,72(6), 275-284.

Abstract: This work may provide effective treatment modalities for preventing and treating rheumatoid arthritis.

Hanno, P. M., Burks, D. A., Clemens, J. Q., Dmochowski, R. R., Erickson, D., FitzGerald, M. P., Forrest, J. B., Gordon, B., Gray, M., Mayer, R. D., Newman, D. K., Nyberg, L. Jr., Payne, C. K., Wesselmann, U., and Faraday, M. M. (2014, September). American Urological Association (AUA) Guideline: Diagnosis and Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome. Linthicum, MD: American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Abstract: The purpose of this Guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).

Harlev, E., Nevo, E., Lansky, E. P., Ofir, R., and Bishayee, A. (2012, June). Anticancer potential of aloes: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory attributes. Planta Med., 78(9), 843-852. 

Abstract: Aloe is a genus of medicinal plants with a notable history of medical use. Basic research over the past couple of decades has begun to reveal the extent of Aloe’s pharmaceutical potential, particularly against neoplastic disease. This review looks at Aloe, both the genus and the folk medicine, often being called informally “aloes”, and delineates their chemistry and anticancer pharmacognosy. Structures of key compounds are provided, and their pharmacological activities reviewed. Particular attention is given to their free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties. This review highlights major research directions on aloes, reflecting the enormous potential of natural sources, and of the genus Aloe in particular, in preventing and treating cancer.

Hart, L. A., van Enckevort, P. H., van Dijk, H., Zaat, R, de Silva, K. T .D., and Labadie, R. P. (1988). Two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds in the gel of Aloe vera. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,23, 61-71.

Abstract: An aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel was analyzed guided by modulatory activity with regard to the in vitro activation of human complement and of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN).

Hedendal, B. E. (n,d,). Super-Strength Aloe vera, almost a panacea: An overview of one of the most accepted, yet misunderstood, medicinal plans in history. Simply Natural Products.

Abstract: Discusses benefits of Aloe vera, especially cold processed.

Heggers, J. P., Pineless, G. R., and Robson, M. C. (1979, September/October). Dermaide Aloe / Aloe vera gel: Comparison of the antimicrobial effects. Journal of American Medical Technologists,41(5), 293-294.

Abstract: This article from the University of Chicago Burn Center records a comparison between two Aloe vera products as to their comparative antimicrobial activity which is important in the treatment of burns and many other injuries. Aloe inhibits the growth of some of the most dangerous microbes.

Henderson, C.. (1991, August 5). Substance boosts therapeutic effects of AZT. AIDS Weekly, 2-3.

Abstract: A complex carbohydrate compound purified from aloe vera appears to help drugs such as AZT and ACY block the pathology associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus. They also found that acemannan interfered with HIV’s ability to reproduce in infected cells.

Henry, R. (1979, June). An updated review of Aloe vera. Cosmetics & Toiletries, 94:6, 42-50.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to update what is happening with the aloe vera plant in respect to history, current findings of the medical industry, identification of some of the compounds, commercial applications of extracts, safety data, and efficacy of extracts in cosmetics.

Hirata, T., Sakano, S., and Suga, T. (1981). Biotransformation of aloenin, a bitter glucoside constituent of Aloe arborescens, by rats. Experientia, 37, 1252-1253.

Abstract: Aloenin has been established to show an inhibitory activity for gastric juice.

Hirata, T., and Suga, T. (1978). Structure of aloenin, a new biologically-active bitter glucoside from Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 51(3), 842-849.

Abstract: Aloenin, a new bitter glucoside with an inhibitory activity for the gastric juice secretion of rats, was isolated from the leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis.

Hirata, T., and Suga, T. (1977). Biologically active constituents of leaves and roots of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Zeitschrift Fur Naturforsch,32, 731-734.

Abstract: Several biologically active substances, such as aloenin, magnesium lactate, aloe-emodin, barbaloin, and succinic acid were found to be contained tin the leaf juice of Aloe arborescens Mill. Var. natalensis Berger, which has widely been used in domestic medicines. Aloenin and magnesium lactate were elucidated to exhibit an inhibitory action on the gastric juice secretion of rats and was taken to also be helpful for arthritis and rheumatic fever. Various constituents other than the above bioactive substances were found in the leaves and the roots of the plant.

Horn, C. L. (1941). Botanical science helps to develop a new relief for human suffering. Journal of The New York Botanical Garden,42 (496), 88-92.

Abstract: Aloe is mentioned in relation to burns, diseases of the chest, wounds, ringworm, roundworm, as a purgative, X-ray burns, and other diseases.

Howe, M. (1996, July 1). Nature’s cure-all: Aloe vera. Country Living.

Abstract: Aloe vera appears to be an all-around herbal cure for many ailments. These range from burns, insect bites and rashes to medical applications as eye drops, toothpaste and anti-inflammatory agents. Although scientific proof of and research into all of Aloe's claims remain in their early stages, evidence of Aloe vera's healing qualities is mounting. A specific section is written concerning Leaky Gut Syndrome.

IC Network. (2014, October). IC Treatments: Six Logical Steps. Healdburg, CA: IC Network.

Im, S. A., Lee, Y. R., Lee, Y. H., Lee, M. K., Park, Y. I., Lee, S., Kim, K., and Lee, C. K. (2010). In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered aloe vera gel. Arch Pharm Res, 33(3), 451-456.

Abstract: The gels of Aloe species contain immunomodulatory components such as aloctin A and acemannan. Most studies on these gels were performed in in vitro cell culture systems. Although several studies examined their immunomodulatory activity in vivo, the route of administration was intraperitoneal or intramuscular. Here, we evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) in mice. Oral administration of PAG significantly reduced the growth of C. albicans in the spleen and kidney following intravenous injection of C. albicans in normal mice. PAG administration also reduced the growth of C. albicans in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PAG administration did not increase ovalbumin (OVA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in normal mice, but did increase it in high-fat-diet induced diabetic mice. These findings provide the first clear evidence for the immuno-modulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

Imanishi, K.. (1993). Aloctin A, an active substance of Aloe arborescens Miller as immunomodulator. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tokyo Women’s Medical College, Tokyo, Japan, 1-4.

Abstract: In this article, I would like to describe the antitumor activity of Aloe A using methylcholanthrene-induced nurine fibrosarcoma (MethA) and lymphocytic leukemia in syngeneic mouse systems.

International Aloe Science Council. (2013, August 25). IASC debunks CSPI aloe warning.

Abstract: The International Aloe Science Council (IASC) responded to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) recent news release telling consumers to avoid taking aloe vera orally, with what IASC executive director, Devon Powell, called "some simple facts." Recently published studies on consumer products showed no carcinogenic effects. Purified (decolorized) aloe vera: no known carcinogenic concerns according to internationally recognized cancer organization. The vast majority of aloe vera products for oral consumption are decolorized or purified. The NTP test article is chemically distinct from what is found in consumer products for oral consumption.

International Painful Bladder Foundation. (2015, January). IPBF e-Newsletter and Research Update, Issue 38, 1-19.

Abstract: An IPBF update for patient support groups, healthcare professionals and friends around the world in the field of interstitial cystitis, bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome, hypersensitive bladder, ketamine cystitis, chronic pelvic pain and associated disorders.

Interstitial Cystitis Association. (2014, September). Official AUA Guidelines for IC, McLean, VA: ICA.

Abstract: The American Urological Association (AUA) clinical guidelines for IC have been updated to be current with recent and newly published research. The guidelines help to end the all-too-common misdiagnosis, underdiagnosis, mistreatment, and undertreatment, especially undertreatment of pain.

Ito, S., Teradaira, R., Beppu, H., Obata, M., Fujita, K., and Nagatsu, T. Biochemical properties of carboxypeptidase in Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger. 77-86.

Abstract: A carboxypeptidase was partially purified from Aloe arborescens Miller var. Natalensis Berger in a scale suitable for pharmacological studies. The results indicate that aloe enzyme is a serine carboxypeptidase and appears to contain a sulfydryl group that may be involved in its inactivation.

Jelly F., Shanghai Office. (2002, September 5). Aloe vera a favoured natural ingredient in Shanghai life.

Abstract: Studies suggest that, in addition to its cosmetic properties, Aloe Vera can also be used in fighting cancer, bacteria and inflammation, reducing blood sugar and blood fat levels and healing wounds. No wonder the plant is so widely used in skin care, cosmetic, medical, healthcare and food products, and that Aloe products are popular in the market.

Ji-eun, S. (2009, September 19). Health ministry scales back measures in schools for flu. JoonAng Daily. 

Abstract: Korea FDA warns against A(H1N1) claims, notes aloe vera is one of only four ingredients allowed to claim immune system enhancement.

Jia, Qi. (n.d.). Research focuses on chromones in Aloe. Univera Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Abstract: Dr. Qi Jia of Univera Pharmaceuticals investigates the role chromones may play in the anti-inflammatory effects Aloe displays.

Johnson, J. S. (2014, October). A phase III double blind study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast tissue., NCT01824134. 

Abstract: The investigators are testing two over-the-counter aloe veras on irradiated breast tissue.

Jones, K. (2008, February 26). Quenching free radicals with aloe vera. Inside cosmeceuticals,

Abstract: Over the past two decades, skin care has advanced at a rate rivaling that of technology. Just as it used be enough for cell phones to simply make phone calls, it used to be enough for skin care products to simply cleanse, tone and moisturize. Those days are long gone. As baby boomers started showing the first signs of aging, they demanded more of their skin care products. They insisted on multi-tasking formulas that could reduce fine lines and wrinkles, firm sagging skin and make dull complexions lustrous again.

Jones, K. (2006). Dietary aloe vera supplementation and glycemic control in diabetes. Nutraceuticals.

Abstract: A growing body of preclinical and clinical research shows that the gel of the Aloe vera plant, administered as a juice or in dried form, has significant antidiabetic activity. Not surprisingly, studies using animal models outnumber clinical trials, but animal studies provide supporting evidence and often provide insights into mechanisms of action.

Kang, M. C., Kim, S. Y., Kim, Y. T., Kim, E. A., and Lee, S. H. (2014). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 99, 365-371. 

Abstract: The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes, including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications.

Karaca, K., Sharma, J. M., and Nordgren, R. (1995). Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by Acemannan. International 1. Immuno Pharmacology, 17(3), 183-188.

Abstract: Cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD11 line cells produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate derived from the Aloe vera plant. Neither cell type produced detectable amounts of NO in response to similar concentrations of yeast mannan, another complex carbohydrate. Nitric oxide production was dose dependent and inhibitable by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G-methyl-L-arginine. In addition, the production of NO was inhibited by preincubation of ACM with concanavalin A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ACM-induced NO synthesis may be mediated through macrophage mannose receptors, and macrophage activation may be accountable for some of the immunomodulatory effects of ACM in chickens.

Kassab, S., Cummings, M., Berkovitz, S., van Haselen, R., and Fisher P. (2009, April). Homeopathic medicines for adverse effects of cancer treatments. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD004845. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004845.pub2. Comment in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 141(2), 162-165.

Abstract: Homeopathic medicines are used by patients with cancer, often alongside conventional treatment. Cancer treatments can cause considerable morbidity and one of the reasons patients use homeopathic medicines is to help with adverse effects. Obnectives: Evaluate effectiveness and safety of homeopathic medicines used to prevent or treat adverse effects of cancer treatments. Conclusions: This review found preliminary data in support of the efficacy of topical calendula for prophylaxis of acute dermatitis during radiotherapy and Traumeel S mouthwash in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. These trials need replicating. There is no convincing evidence for the efficacy of homeopathic medicines for other adverse effects of cancer treatments. Further research is required.

Kaithwas, G., Dubey, K., and Pillai, K. K. (2011, April). Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel on doxorubicin-induced myocardial oxidative stress and calcium overload in albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 49, 260-268. 

Abstract: Administration of a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX) (7.5 mg/kg, iv) produces cardiotoxicity, manifested biochemically by significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and tissue GSH along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK). In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by significant increase in lipid peroxides expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA, secondary indicator of lipid peroxidation), tissue catalase and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of A. Vera gel (100 and 200 mg/kg) orally for 10 days produced a significant protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum LDH, serum CPK, cardiac lipid peroxides, tissue catalase and tissue SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH. The results revealed that A. Vera gel produced a dose dependent protection against DOX induced cardiotoxicity.

Kaithwas, G., Singh, P., and Bhatia, D. (2014). Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Drug Chem Toxicolology, 37(2), 135-43. 

Abstract: In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

Kavalier, F. (n.d.). A question of health: I can't seem to get rid of the infection that is giving me a terrible cough. And how can I produce my own aloe vera juice at home? (Features) (Bug that won’t go away). The Independent London, England.

Abstract: Answers these questions.

Kawai, K., Beppu, H., Koike, T., Fujita, K., and Marunouchi, T. (n.d.). Tissue culture of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger. 141-154.

Abstract: We examined the culture conditions for callus induction in the tissues of Aloe arborescens.

Keshavarzi, Z., Rezapour, T. M., Vatanchian, M., Hesari, M. Z., Haghighi, H. N., Izanlu, M., Sabaghian, M., and Shahveisi, K. (2014, March-April). The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in male rats. Avicenna J Phytomed, 4(2), 137-143. 

Abstract: Gut-brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output.

Khaing, T. A. (2011). Evaluation of the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of Aloe vera (Aloe barbbadenisis Miller). World Academy of Science: Engineering and Technology,75.

Abstract: Aloe vera has been used worldwide both for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of some of its metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract. The antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against plant and human fungal pathogens. The methanol and ethanol portions of the extracts studies were more bioactive than ethyl acetate portion. It was also observed that the activity was more pronounced on plant pathogen than human pathogen except Candida albicans. This is an indication that the extract has the potential to treat plant fungal infections. The Aloe extract showed the significant antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging method. Therefore, the Aloe extract provided as natural antioxidant has been used in health foods for medical and preservative purposes.

Kima, K., Kima, H., Kwona, J., Leea, S., Konga, H., Imb, S. A., Leeb, Y. H., Leeb, Y. R., Ohb, S. T., Joc, T. H., Parkd, Y. I., Leeb, C. K., and Kim, K. (2009). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of processed Aloe vera gel in a mouse model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine, 16, 856-863. 

Abstract: The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on the course of established diet-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied in C57BL/6J mice. NIDDM was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding them a high-fat diet. Mice exhibiting diet-induced obesity (DIO) with blood glucose levels above 180 mg/dl were selected to examine the antidiabetic effects of PAG. Oral administration of PAG for 8 weeks reduced circulating blood glucose concentrations to a normal level in these DIO mice. In addition, the administration of PAG significantly decreased plasma insulin. The antidiabetic effects of PAG were also confirmed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing. PAG appeared to lower blood glucose levels by decreasing insulin resistance. The administration of PAG also lowered triacylglyceride levels in liver and plasma. Histological examinations of periepididymal fat pad showed that PAG reduced the average size of adipocytes. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of PAG prevents the progression of NIDDM-related symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, and suggest that PAG could be useful for treating NIDDM.

Kislyak, N., and Posnyak, I. (N.D.). Hypochromic anemia in small children treated with syrup of Aloe with iron. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data, Medexport, USSR, Moscow.

Abstract: In addition to the fact that aloe itself is a good biogenic stimulator, it preserves the iron in its most active form, reduces the irritation effect of iron on the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and imparts a pleasant taste to the preparation. There are indications that the new preparation is highly effective in the treatment of hypochromic anemias in adults as well.

Klein, L. (1993, March 1). Aloe vera: Au naturel. Vibrant Life.

Abstract: Use of aloe vera as a plant and includes some discussion on specific properties of the plant.

Kranjcec, B., and Papes, D. (2014, February). D-mannose powder for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: A randomized clinical trial. World Journal of Urology, 32(1), 79-84. 

Abstract: To test whether d-mannose powder is effective for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) prevention.

Kudalkar, M. D., Nayak, A., Bhat, K. S., and Nayak, R. N. (2014, January-March). Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study. AYU: Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 35(1), 85-89. 

Abstract: A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP- 9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline.

Kumar, G. R., Devanand, G., John, B. D., Ankit, Y., Khursheed, O., and Sumit, M. (2014, April). Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4-day plaque re-growth model: Randomized control trial. Ethiop J Health Science, 24(2), 139-144. 

Abstract: Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). Material and Methods: A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100): chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. Results: The results showed that Aloe vera mouth rinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.

Kumar, M., Rakesh, S., Nagpal, R., Hemalatha, R., Ramakrishna, A., Sudarshan, V., Ramagoni, R., Shujauddin, M., Verma, V., Kumar, A., Tiwari, A., Singh, B., and Kumar, R. (2013). Probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Aloe vera gel improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutrition, 29, 574-579. 

Abstract: The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Aloe vera (AV) gel on lipid profiles in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were studied. Methods: Five treatment groups of rats (n = 7) were the fed experimental diets: a normal control diet, a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), HD + LGG, HD + AV gel, and HD + LGG + AV gel. Results: Supplementation with LGG decreased serum total cholesterol by 32%; however, in combination with AV, the decrease was 43%. The decreases in triacylglycerol levels in the HD + LGG, HD + AV, and HD + LGG + AV groups were 41%, 23% and 45%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein increased by 12% in the HD + LGG + AV group, whereas very low-density and low-density lipoprotein values decreased by 45% and 30%, respectively. The atherogenic index in the HD + LGG + AV group decreased to 2.45 from 4.77 in the HD + LGG group. Furthermore, fecal Lactobacillus species counts increased significantly when LGG was fed in combination with the AV gel. The oral administration of LGG fermented milk alone or in combination with the AV gel increased cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression) and absorption (low-density lipoprotein receptor expression), whereas cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase mRNA expression levels were lower in the HD + LGG and HD + LGG + AV groups compared with the control HD group. Conclusion: The combination of LGG and AV gel may have a therapeutic potential to decrease cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Kupchan, S. M., and Karim, A. (n.d.). Tumor inhibitors, Aloe emodin Antileukemic principle isolated from rhamnus frangula L. Lloydia, 39.

Abstract: This breakthrough research report identifies the ingredient that gives Aloe its anti-tumor characteristic on the cellular level.

Kurilenko, M. I. (n.d.) On studying the ampoullated Aloe extract. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max Skousen, 98-101.

Abstract: The aloe extracts prepared from fresh and dried raw stock are found to be identical as to the total amount of acids and cations, the pH, and also to chromatographic behavior on paper.

Kuzuya, H. (2006, January 1). Inhibitory effects of Aloe carboxypeptidase fraction on streptozotocin-induced enhancement of vascular permeability in the pancreatic islets. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology.

Abstract: The protective actions of components isolated from Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger on streptozotocin-induced necrosis of B cells in the pancreatic islets of the mouse were investigated to clarify its action mechanism involved in anti-diabetic effects.

Kyker, K. D., Coffman, J., and Hurst, R. E. (2005, March 23). Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder. BMC Urology, 5, 4.

Abstract: Interstitial cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst), hyaluronate (Cystistat) or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron). The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparin sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labeled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with the coating of damaged bladder.

Lachenmeier, K., Kuepper, U., Musshoff, F., Madea, B., Reusch, H., and Lachenmeier, D. W. (2005). Quality control of aloe vera beverages. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural, and Food Chemistry, 4(4), 1033-1042. 

Abstract: Aloe vera beverages have to be produced exclusively using material of the plant species Aloe barbadensis Miller. Commercial material was reported to be frequently adulterated by artificial preservatives or to lack significant amounts of Aloe ingredients. HPTLC and HS-SPME/GC/MS methods to assess the authenticity of Aloe vera beverages were developed in this study, allowing to differentiate between authentic and adulterated products. In one case a commercially available Aloe vera juice could be proven to be exceedingly watered down. Parallel to the authenticity control, the HS-SPME method employed in this work allowed to detect the preservatives benzoic acid, sorbic acid and pHB-esters. In 17 of 24 (71%) currently available Aloe-food products an illegal addition of preservatives of up to 1000 mg/l could be ascertained. The presented analyses of Aloe vera beverages lead to the conclusion, that this product line does not give any cause for hygienic but rather legal concerns: controls have to be intensified to ensure sufficient product quality with regard to preservatives.

Langhorst, J., Wulfert, H., Lauche, R., Klose, P., Cramer, H., Dobos, G. J., and Korzenik, J. A. (2015). Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, 86-106. 

Abstract: We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn’s disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies. Methods: A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, e.g., aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, i.e., plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD. Conclusions: Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary.

Langstone, A. (2000, February 19). Bitter truth: Aloe vera. The Epoch Times.

Abstract: Aloe vera is once again gaining the interest of researchers. Aloe means bitter in Arabic, and vera is Latin for truth.

Lee, C. K., Hana, S. S., Shina, Y. K., Chung, M. H., Park, Y. I., Lee, S. K., and Kim, Y. S. (1999). Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 21, 303-310.

Abstract: We have recently reported that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators, G1C2F1, that restore ultraviolet B (UVB)-suppressed accessory cell function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the UVB-protective activity of G1C2F1 in vivo. Exposure of the shaved abdominal skin of mice to 2.4 KJ/m2 of UVB radiation resulted in suppression of contact sensitization through the skin to 41.1%, compared to normal unirradiated skin. Topical application of G1C2F1 immediately after irradiation reduced this suppression significantly. The percentage recovery of UVB-suppressed contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was 52.3, 77.3, and 86.6% when the irradiated skin was treated once with 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/ml of G1C2F1-containing cream, respectively. G1C2F1 did not show nonspecific stimulatory activity on CHS response. The present study, together with the previous observation, show that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators that prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin by restoration of UVB-induced damages on epidermal LC.

Lee, J. K., Lee, M. K., Yun, Y. P., Kim, Y., Kim, J. S., Kim, Y. S., Kim, K., Han, S. S., and Lee, C. K. (2001). Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells. International Immunopharmacology, 1, 1275-1284. 

Abstract: Acemannan, a major carbohydrate fraction of Aloe vera gel, has been known to have antiviral and antitumoral activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. The present study was set out to define the immunomodulatory activity of acemannan on dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most important accessory cells for the initiation of primary immune responses. Immature DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells by culturing in a medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4, and then stimulated with acemannan, sulfated acemannan, and LPS, respectively. The resultant DCs were examined for phenotypic and functional properties. Phenotypic analysis for the expression of class II MHC molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1, B7-2, CD40 and CD54 confirmed that acemannan could induce maturation of immature DCs. Functional maturation of immature DCs was supported by increased allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and IL-12 production. The differentiation-inducing activity of acemannan was almost completely abolished by chemical sulfation. Based on these results, we propose that the adjuvant activity of acemannan is at least in part due to its capacity to promote differentiation of immature DCs.

Leung, A. Y. (1985, September). Aloe vera update: A new form questions integrity of old. Drug and Cosmetics Industry, 42-46.

Abstract: Discusses the ability to now stabilize processed yet active Aloe so that more reliable tests may be done.

Leung, A. Y. (1977, June). Effective ingredients of Aloe vera. Drugs and Cosmetics, 34-35, 154-155.

Abstract: Effective ingredients of Aloe vera.

Levenson, S., and Somova, K. (n.d.). Periodontosis (disease of the bone holding teeth) treated with Aloe extract. Irkutak Medical Institute, Russia.

Abstract: Treatment of periodontosis with aloes extract produced positive results, both direct and remote.

Lissoni, P., Giani, L., Zerbini, S., Trabattoni, P., and Rovelli, F. (1998). Biotherapy with the pineal immunomodulating hormone melatonin versus melatonin plus aloe vera in untreatable advanced solid neoplasms. Nat Immun. 16(1), 27-33.

Abstract: We have carried out a clinical study to evaluate whether the concomitant administration of aloe may enhance the therapeutic results of MLT in patients with advanced solid tumors for whom no effective standard anticancer therapies are available. Both treatments were well tolerated. This preliminary study would suggest that natural cancer therapy with MLT plus A. vera extracts may produce some therapeutic benefits, at least in terms of stabilization of disease and survival, in patients with advanced solid tumors, for whom no other standard effective therapy is available.

Lissoni, P., Rovelli, F., Brivio, F., Zago, R., Colciago, M., Messina, G., Mora, A., and Porro, G. (2009). A randomized study of chemotherapy versus biochemotherapy with chemotherapy plus aloe arborescens in patients with metastatic cancer. In Vivo, 23, 171-176.

Abstract: The recent advances in the analysis of tumor immuno-biology suggest the possibility of biologically manipulating the efficacy and toxicity of cancer chemotherapy by endogenous or exogenous immuno-modulating substances. Aloe is one of the of the most important plants exhibiting anticancer activity and its anti-neoplastic property is due to at least three different mechanisms, based on anti-proliferative, immuno-stimulatory and antioxidant effects. The anti-proliferative action is determined by anthracenic and anthraquinonic molecules, while the immuno-stimulating activity is mainly due to acemannan. Patients and Methods: A study was planned to include 240 patients with metastatic solid tumor who were randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without Aloe. According to tumor histotype and clinical status, lung cancer patients were treated with Cisplatin and Etoposide or weekly Vinorelbine, colorectal cancer patients received Oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gastric cancer patients were treated with weekly 5-FU and pancreatic cancer patients received weekly Gemcitabine. Aloe was given orally at 10 ml thrice/daily. Results: The percentage of both objective tumor regressions and disease control was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Aloe than with chemotherapy alone, as well as the percent of 3-year survival patients. Conclusion: This study seems to suggest that Aloe may be successfully associated with chemotherapy to increase its efficacy in terms of both tumor regression rate and survival time.

Lissoni, P., Rovelli, F., Messina, G., Brivio, F., Boniardi, B., Porro, G., Vigore, L., Fede, D., Marchiori, P., and Brera, G. (2009). Biotherapy with the pineal hormone melatonin plus aloe and myrrh tincture in untreatable metastatic cancer patients as an essence therapy of cancer. Cancer Therapy, 7, 297-401.

Abstract: The recent advances in understanding the immunobiological interactions responsible for cancer progression have allowed us to define the mechanisms of action of some plants, whose antitumor properties were already known by the popular Medicine, in particular Aloe and Myrrha, whose mixture was already therapeutically utilized more than 2000 years ago by the Essence medicine. Moreover, some endogenous natural substances, namely the main hormone produced by the pineal gland melatonin (MLT) may also play anticancer activity. On this basis, a study was performed with a biological regimen consisting of MLT, Aloe and Myrrha in untreatable metastatic cancer patients with life expectancy lower than 1 year. Methods: The study included 35 patients. MLT was given orally at 20 mg/day in the evening and a mixed Aloe and Myrrha tincture was administered at a dose of 5 ml/thrice daily. Results: The clinical response consisted of complete response (CR) in 1, partial response (PR) in 2, stable disease (SD) in 19 patients, whereas the remaining 13 patients had a progressive disease (PD). Thus, a disease control (CR + PR + SD) was achieved in 22/35 (63%)patients. Moreover, a survival longer than 1 year was achieved in 17/35 (49%) patients. Finally, DC was associated with an evident improvement in the immune status, namely consisting of a decrease in the number of T regulatory lymphocytes, which are the main cells responsible for the suppression of the anticancer immunity. Conclusion: This preliminary study shows that a biological anticancer regimen consisting of the pineal hormone MLT in association with Aloe and Myrrha mixture, already known at the times of the Essence medical tradition, may induce a control of the neoplastic disease by stimulating the anticancer immunity, in a relevant percentage metastatic cancer patients, who did not respond to the conventional anticancer treatments and for whom no other standard therapy was available.

Lopez-Jornet, P., Camacho-Alonso, F., and Molino-Pagan, D. (2013). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical evaluation of Aloe vera Barbadensis, applied in combination with a tongue protector to treat burning mouth syndrome. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, 42, 295-301.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of aloe vera (AV) applied in combination with a tongue protector, comparing this with a placebo. Methods: A total of 75 patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) were divided into three groups randomly: Group I (tongue protector three times a day), Group II (tongue protector and 0.5 ml AV at 70% three times a day) and Group III (tongue protector and 0.5 ml placebo three times a day). Symptoms were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), while patient psychological profiles were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety-Depression scale and their quality of life using the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49). Treatment continued for 3 months. Results: Visual analogue scale pain values improved for all three study groups but without statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.210). Regarding quality of life, no significant differences were found between groups with the exception of the OHIP-49 score for handicap. The overall clinical improvement was greater for Group II, with a difference almost reaching significance. Conclusions: The concomitant prescription of tongue protector and AV is effective for treating patients with BMS.

Lorenzetti, L. J., Salisbury, R., Beal, J. L., and Baldwin, J. N. (1964, October). Bacteriostatic property of Aloe vera. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science,53(10), 1287.

Abstract: Antibacterial property of Aloe vera. Freeze-dried juice obtained from Aloe vera and heated for 15 minutes at 80° inhibited several test microorganisms.

Lovelady, S. (2004, October 1). Diabetes: The all-American disease: Given the rise in diabetes, nutraceutical solutions are in demand. Nutraceuticals World.

Abstract: A placebo-controlled, single-blind human clinical trial found that diabetics receiving 15 milliliters of Aloe gel twice a day for 42 days experienced 43% and 44% reductions in blood sugar and blood triglycerides, respectively, while controls experienced no change.

Loveman, A. B. (1937). Leaf of Aloe vera in treatment of Roentgen ray ulcers: Report of 2 additional cases, Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology,36, 838-843.

Abstract: Reports two cases of aloe used for roentgen burns.

Lushbaugh, C. C., and Hale, D. B. (1953, July). Experimental acute radiodermatitis following beta irradiation. V. histopathological study of the mode of action of therapy with Aloe vera. Cancer, 6, 690-698.

Abstract: Animal research on acute radiation damage.

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