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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


Madis Laboratories, Inc. (n.d.). Veragel: Purified Aloe leaf extract derived from Aloe vera gel.

Abstract: History of aloe gel as well as its applications and uses.

Maenthaisong, R., Chaiyakunapruk, N., Niruntraporn, S., and Kongkaew, C. (2007). The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing: A systematic review. Burns, 33, 713-718. 

Abstract: Aloe vera has been traditionally used for burn healing but clinical evidence remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of topical aloe vera for the treatment of burn wounds. We electronically searched relevant studies in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, HealthSTAR, DARE, Southeast Asia Database, Chinese Databases, and several Thai local Databases (1918, June 2004). Only controlled clinical trials for burn healing were included. There were no restrictions on any language of publication. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, patient characteristics, intervention, and outcome measure. Four studies with a total of 371 patients were included in this review. Based on a meta-analysis using duration of wound healing as an outcome measure, the summary weighted mean difference in healing time of the aloe vera group was 8.79 days shorter than those in the control group (P = 0.006). Due to the differences of products and outcome measures, there is paucity to draw a specific conclusion regarding the effect of aloe vera for burn wound healing. However, cumulative evidence tends to support that aloe vera might be an effective interventions used in burn wound healing for first to second degree burns. Further, well-designed trials with sufficient details of the contents of aloe vera products should be carried out to determine the effectiveness of aloe vera.

Mahbub, A. A., Le Maitre, C. L., Haywood-Small, S. L., McDougall, G. J., Cross, N. A., and Jordan-Mahy, N. (2013). Differential effects of polyphenols on proliferation and apoptosis in human myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 13, 1601-1613. 

Abstract: Abstract: Background: Mortality rates for leukemia are high despite considerable improvements in treatment. Since polyphenols exert pro-apoptotic effects in solid tumors, our study investigated the effects of polyphenols in haematological malignancies. The effect of eight polyphenols (quercetin, chrysin, apigenin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein, cisstilbene and trans-stilbene) were studied on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in four lymphoid and four myeloid leukemic cells lines, together with normal haematopoietic control cells. Methods: Cellular proliferation was measured by CellTiter-Glo luminescent assay; and cell cycle arrest was assessed using flow cytometry of propidium iodide stained cells. Apoptosis was investigated by caspase-3 activity assay using flow cytometry and apoptotic morphology was confirmed by Hoescht 33342 staining. Results: Emodin, quercetin, and cis-stilbene were the most effective polyphenols at decreasing cell viability (IC50 values of 5-22 µM, 8-33 µM, and 25-85 µM respectively) and inducing apoptosis (AP50 values (the concentration which 50% of cells undergo apoptosis) of 2-27 µM, 19-50 µM, and 8-50 µM, respectively). Generally, lymphoid cell lines were more sensitive to polyphenol treatment compared to myeloid cell lines, however the most resistant myeloid (KG-1a and K562) cell lines were still found to respond to emodin and quercetin treatment at low micromolar levels. Non-tumor cells were less sensitive to all polyphenols compared to the leukemia cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that polyphenols have anti-tumor activity against leukemia cells with differential effects. Importantly, the differential sensitivity of emodin, quercetin, and cis-stilbene between leukemia and normal cells suggests that polyphenols are potential therapeutic agents for leukemia.

Makino, K., Yagi, A., and Itsuo, N. (1974). Studies on the constituents of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger. II. The structures of two new aloesin esters. Chem. Pharm. Bulletin, 22(7), 1565-1570.

Abstract: Two new aloesin esters were isolated from the fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger. These esters are the first naturally occurring 2"-O-acylated C-glucosyl compounds.

Mandeville, F. B. (1939). Aloe vera in treatment of radiation ulcers of mucous membranes. Radiology, 32, 598-599.

Abstract: Literature on Aloe vera therapy for radiation ulcers of the skin is briefly reviewed. Radiation ulcers of the mucous membranes and adjacent tissues of body cavities may also be treated with the fresh leaf of Aloe vera. A case of osteo-radio-necrosis of the mouth so treated and well two years following healing is briefly reported.

Mangelson, M. L., Carson, R. E., Uydea, G. T., Moore, T. E., and Cucchiara, Andrew J. (n.d.). Effects of Aloe vera irrigation on pathogenic microorganisms associated with moderate to advanced adult periodontitis. University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry, Graduate Periodontics Program.

Abstract: Controlled in vivo human study of the effects of Aloe vera on pathogenic microorganisms associated with adult periodontitis.

Mary, N. Y., Christensen, B. V., and Beal, J. L. (1956, April). A paper chromatographic study of Aloe, aloin and of cascara sagrada. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, XLV(4), 229-232.

Abstract: A qualitative and quantitative study of aloe, aloin, and cascara sagrada by the use of paper chromatography was undertaken. The results indicated the presence of aloe-emodin and anthranol in the free state and in glycosidal combination in all five of the drugs investigated. In addition, the Curacao aloe contained chrysophanic acid and the cascara sagrada contained chrysophanic acid and emodin in their free state and also in glycosidal combination.

McCarthy, T. J., and Mapp, R. K. (1970, January). A comparative investigation of methods used to estimate aloin and related compounds in Aloes. Planta Medica,18(1), 36-43.

Abstract: The assay of aloin in aloes are investigated using different methods, and these are discussed. Furthermore, the presence of homonataloin, aloinosides and similar compounds in aloes are investigated in relation to these assay methods. The effect of heating aloe juice in relation to aloin destruction is also discussed.

McCarthy, T. J. (1969, February). Distribution of glycosyl compounds in South African Aloe species. Planta Medica,17(1), 1-7.

Abstract: In the slightly more than one hundred Aloe species examined, it has been found that the C-glycosyl anthraquinones aloin and homonataloin appear in nearly half these species, and in roughly equal proportions. The C-glycosyl benzopyrone derivative, aloesin, appears in more than one quarter of the total species and almost exclusively in the species containing aloin or homonataloin. The O-glycosyl compounds of aloin (aloinosides) and of chrysophanol appear far less commonly.

McDaniel, H. R., Carpenter, R. H., Kemp, M. C., Kahlon, J., and McAnalley, B. H. (1989). A favorable response of HIV-1-infected patients to oral acemannan and development of prognostic criteria for clinical responsiveness.

Abstract: Reports two studies. The objective of the first was to assess response of HIV-1 patients to acemannan therapy; the objective of the second was to determine if a response to acemannan treatment could be predicted based on certain pre-therapy laboratory values. Three patients predicted to improve in all three criteria failed to do so, although they did improve in two parameters. None predicted to respond favorably failed to show some improvement. Three patients predicted to show no improvement did improve in at least one category with two of the patients improving in all three.

McDaniel, H. R., McAnalley, B. H., and Carpenter, R. H. (n.d.). The basic science and principles for the use of in clinical medicine. Grand Prairie, TX: Fisher Institute for Medical Research at Dallas-Fort Worth Medical Center.

Abstract: Acemannan in clinical medicine.

McIntosh, S. E., Opacic, M., Freer, L., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Cochran, A., Giesbrecht, G. G., McDevitt, M., Imray, C. H., Johnson, E. L., Dow, J., and Hackett, P. H. (2014). Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite: 2014 update. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 25, S43-S54,

Abstract: The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2011;22(2):156-166.

McKeown, E. C. (1983, June). Aloe vera: The quest for the “curative” missing link. Drug & Cosmetic Industry, 30ff.

Abstract: This article reviews what we currently know (or do not know) about the composition and analysis of aloe and examines the quest for the “curative” ingredient missing link.

Meadows, T. P. (1980, November). Aloe as a humectant in new skin preparations. Cosmetics & Toiletries, 95, 51-56.

Abstract: Article presents a few of the types of products in which aloe gel may be used. Aloe gel may be used in any system in which moisturization or mildness is wanted. Alone or in conjunction with other materials for that purpose.

Mebe, P. P. (1987). 2´-p-Methoxycoumaroylaloeresin, A c-glucoside from Aloe excelsa. Phytochemistry, 26(9), 2646-2647.

Abstract: I report here a chemical investigation of the dried leaf surfaces of Aloe excelsa which resulted in the isolation of a new natural compound, p-methoxycoumaroylaloeresin (2) and known compounds, aloesin (1) [5], homonataloin [6], aloin [4] and 1,5 dihydroxy-e-hydroxymehtylanthraquinone [7] from the acetone extract.

Misawa, E., Tanakaa, M., Nomaguchia, K., Yamadaa, M., Toidaa, T., Takaseb, M., Iwatsukia, K., and Kawada, T. (2008). Administration of phytosterols isolated from Aloe vera gel reduce visceral fat mass and improve hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 2, 239-245. 

Abstract: We examined the effects of lophenol (Lo) and cycloartanol (Cy), minor phytosterols of Aloe vera gel, in obese animal model of type II diabetes, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats were administered Lo and Cy at 25 g/(kg day) daily for 44 days. Consecutive treatment of phytosterols suppressed the hyperglycemia, and random blood glucose levels after 35 days of treatment were 39.6 and 37.2% lower than the control, in Lo and Cy treatment groups, respectively. Consistent with the random blood glucose level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values of phytosterols treated rats were also lower than the control (Lo: 5.5 + 0.8, Cy: 4.6 + 0.7 vs. control: 7.2 + 1.5). In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after 28 days of administration, the glucose intolerance was improved in phytosterols treatment groups. Additionally, the continuous administration of Lo and Cy also reduced the serum free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels except total cholesterol (T-Cho). Furthermore, the weights of total abdominal fat tissues were significantly lower than the control in ZDF rats with Lo (27.7%) and Cy (26.3%) treatment. These observations suggest that Aloe vera-derived phytosterols could reduce visceral fat accumulation, and would be useful for the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

Mirshafiey, A., Aghily, B., Namaki, S., Razavi, A., Ghazavi, A., Ekhtiari, P., and Mosayebi, G. (2010). Therapeutic approach by Aloe vera in experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 32(3), 410-415. 

Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to an inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive neurologic disability that affects ~2.5 million people worldwide. The aim of the present research was to test the therapeutic effect of Aloe vera in experimental model of MS. All experiments were conducted on C57BL/6 male mice aged 6-8 weeks. To induce the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), 250 µg of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide emulsified in complete freund’s adjuvant was injected subcutaneously on day 0 over two flank areas. In addition, 200 ng of pertussis toxin in 100 µL phosphate buffered saline was injected intraperitoneally on days 0 and 2. The therapeutic protocol was carried out intragastrically using 120 mg/kg/day Aloe vera from 7 days before to 21 days after EAE induction. The mice were killed 21 days after EAE induction. The brains of mice were removed for histological analysis and their isolated splenocytes were cultured. The results indicated that treatment with Aloe vera caused a significant reduction in severity of the disease in experimental model of MS. Histological analysis showed 3 + 2 plaques in Aloe vera-treated mice compared with 5 + 1 plaques in control group. The density of mononuclear infiltration in the CNS of Aloe vera-treated mice (500 + 200) was significantly less in comparison to 700 + 185 cells in control group. Moreover, the serum level of nitric oxide in treatment group was significantly less than control animals. The level of interferon-γ in cell culture supernatant of treated mice splenocytes was lower than control group, whereas decrease in serum level of interleukin-10 in treatment group was not significant in comparison with control mice. These data indicate that Aloe vera therapy can attenuate the disease progression in experimental model of MS.

Mishra, A. K., Mishra, A., Verma, A., and Chattopadhyay, P. (2012). Effects of Calendula essential oil-based cream on biochemical parameters of skin of albino rats against ultraviolet B radiation. Sci Pharm, 80, 669-683.

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and a-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after one month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

Monroe, A., Schwartz, H., and Dorman, N. (1981, December 9). Clinical safety evaluation of sample: AVA Aloe vera gel. East Orange, NJ: A. FORL Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc.

Abstract: The purpose of the test was to determine the irritation and/or sensitization potential of the test product after repeated application under occlusion to the skin of human subjects.

Moore, T. E. (2009). Aloe Vera: Its Potential Use in Wound Healing and Disease Control in Oral Conditions. 

Abstract: Aloe vera has been shown to enhance defense mechanisms, and it has a variety of components to help combat periodontal disease and other oral conditions. As a periodontist utilizing aloe vera in various consistencies for the last 14 years with over 6,000 documented patients who have been treated with applications, I’ve observed remarkable healing, reduced edema, and pain control.

Moroni, P. (1982, September). Aloe in cosmetic formulations. Cosmetic Technology.

Abstract: Discusses the uses of Aloe vera gel in various cosmetics including shampoo, hair rinses, and suntan preparations. The five major properties of the gel are anti-inflammatory, healing, moisturizing, substantivity to hair and skin, increasing skin respiration. Antibacterial properties of aloe gel were claimed in studies. Aloe also used in peptic ulcer therapy.

Morrow, D. M., Rapaport, M. J., and Strick, R. A. (MD). (1980, September). Hypersensitivity to Aloe. Archives of Dermatology, 116, 1064-1065.

Abstract: In this study we see a case where Aloe was not an exception to food allergic reaction.

Morsy, Esam M. (n.d.). Study of the healing qualities of the Aloe vera plant. Phoenix, AZ: United Aloe Technologists Association.

Abstract: Study of the healing qualities of the Aloe vera plant.

Morton, J. F. (1961). Folk uses and commercial exploitation of Aloe leaf pulp. Economic Botany,15(4), 311-319.

Abstract: Provides both an appreciation of the medicinal uses of a number of different species of Aloe and the growth of the first Aloe industry in the U.S.

Mortensson, C., and Hall, A. (2002, February 6). Twin treats: Natural healing powers of Aloe vera make it a super plant if you want to feel fine. Daily Record. Glasgow, Scotland.

Abstract: Discusses uses of both Aloe vera.

Murray, F. (1994, December). Aloe vera - Internal and external first aid. Better Nutrition for Today’s Living, 50-51.

Abstract: Reports on several studies on the use of Aloe vera to reduce various symptoms.

Murray, F. (1994, March). Therapy and treatment with Aloe vera. Better Nutrition, 52-55.

Abstract: Interesting uses and ways of use for aloe vera.


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