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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


Nandal, U., and Bhardwaj, R. L. (2012, Mar-Apr). Aloe vera: A valuable wonder plant for food, medicine and cosmetic use: a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 13(1), 59-67. 

Abstract: Aloe vera is a wonder plant with health benefits so myriad and astounding that hardly any part of human body remains uninfluenced by its healing touch. It acts as a natural fighter against all sorts of infection, an efficient anti-oxidant, helps in treating all digestion related problems, heartburn, arthritis, stress, diabetes, rheumatism pain, asthma, cancer, AIDS. It also acts as a laxative, beauty enhancer and studies have shown that it has an effect on lowering blood sugar levels in diabetics. Aloe has been proved to be a plant of amazing medicinal properties through researchers. The medicinal value of the plant is recognized since centuries because of the gel like pulp obtained by peeling its leaves. Its juice has cooling properties, is anabolic in action, a fighter of ‘pitta’, storehouse of phytochemicals and guards against fever, skin diseases, burns, ulcers, boils eruptions etc. Commercially, aloe can be found in pills, sprays, ointments, lotions, liquids, drinks, jellies, and creams, to name a few of the thousands of products available. In the present scenario, the aloe industry is blooming but the consumers are misguided leading to unfavourable outcome due to reasons like unawareness about its proper and adequate medicinal and health value, improper marketing and unavailability of processing units at farmer’s level, misleading hyped advertisement in cosmetic and health products. So, there is a burning need to educate about the importance of Aloe vera for human race and popularize it for greater interest.

Natural Products Insider. (n.d.). Aloe vera increases absorption of vitamins E, C. Online.

Abstract: Aloe vera appears to increase absorption of vitamins E and C by slowing the nutrients' assimilation and prolonging concentrations in blood plasma, according to a study published in Phytomedicine (12, 10:760-5, 2005).

Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, F. (2013). Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera. Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 3, 5.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 + 0.45, 20 + 0.35, 20 + 0.57, and 15 + 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.

Ni, Y., and Tizard, I. (1996). Lectin-carbohydrate interaction in the immune system. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 55, 205-223.

Abstract: The immune system consists of various types of cells and molecules that specifically interact with each other to initiate the host defense mechanism. Recent studies have shown that carbohydrates and lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) play an essential role in mediating such interactions. The development in this area has opened a new aspect in studying the immune system, and at the same time, provided new therapeutic routes for the treatment and prevention of disease.

Nia, Y., Turnerb, D.. Yatesa, K. M., and Tizardb, I. (2004). Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. International Immunopharmacology, 4, 1745-1755. 

The clear pulp, also known as inner gel, of Aloe vera L. leaf is widely used in various medical, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. Many beneficial effects of this plant have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the pulp. However, discrepancies exist regarding the composition of pulp polysaccharide species and an understanding of pulp structure in relation to its chemical composition has been lacking. Thus, we examined pulp structure, isolated structural components and determined their carbohydrate compositions along with analyzing a partially purified pulp-based product (Acemannan hydrogel) used to make Carrisyn hydrogel wound dressing. Light and electron microscopy showed that the pulp consisted of large clear mesophyll cells with a diameter as large as 1000 Am. These cells were composed of cell walls and cell membranes along with a very limited number of degenerated cellular organelles. No intact cellular organelles were found in mesophyll cells. Following disruption of pulp by homogenization, three components were isolated by sequential centrifugation. They were thin clear sheets, microparticles and a viscous liquid gel, which corresponded to cell wall, degenerated cellular organelles and liquid content of mesophyll cells based on morphological and chemical analysis. These three components accounted for 16.2% (F3.8), 0.70% (F0) and 83.1% of the pulp on a dry weight basis. The carbohydrate composition of each component was distinct; liquid gel contained mannan, microparticles contained galactose-rich polysaccharide(s) and cell walls contained an unusually high level of galacturonic acid (34%, w/w; Gal A). The same three components were also found in Acemannan Hydrogel with mannan as the predominant component. Thus, different pulp structural components are associated with different polysaccharides and thus may potentially be different functionally. These findings may help lay a basis for further studies and development of better controlled processing methods and applications for this well-accepted medicinal plant.

Nicolaev, A. B. (1966). Aloe: Valuable medicinal plant. All Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(4), 51-53.

Abstract: Translation of a Russian article discussing indications and contra-indications of the use of sabur and aborescent Aloe.

NIH, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine. (2012, April). Aloe vera. Herbs at a Glance, pp 1-2.

Abstract: This fact sheet provides basic information about aloe vera: common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information.

Noskov, A. D. (1966). The treatment of periodontosis with injections of Aloe extract and their influence on the phosphorus-calcium metabolism. Stomatologiya, (4), 13-l 5.

Abstract: Aloe therapy in complex treatment of periodontosis proves to be efficacious in the stage I and II of the disease. The blood serum calcium content in periodontosis is abnormally high, being 11.79 mg % on the average. Aloe extract injections in Periodontosis normalize disturbed calcium metabolism.

Nudolskaya, O. E. (1960). Aloe treatment of onchocerclasis (craw-craw) of the vulva. Sovetskaia Meditsina, 24(2).

Abstract: Complex therapy with Aloe preparations proved to be very effective; it is recommend to gynecologists for wide use in the treatment of patients suffering from onchocerclasis of the vulva.

Nutraceuticals World (2007, October). Botanicals for Diabetes,, 56.

Abstract: The dried gel from the Aloe vera plant (family: Aloeaceae) has been shown useful in three studies on NIDDIM. Five phytosterols, lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene-cycloartanol, together with the water-soluble fiber glucomannan, appear to be the active constituents. Blood sugar reduction of up to 55% has been shown in in-vivo research. The mechanism is thought to be related to its beta-cell protective effects, inhibitory effects on glucose-absorption speed and a modulation of liver enzymes. A half teaspoonful of aloe daily for four to 14 weeks decreased fasting glucose level from a mean of 273 mg/dl to 151 mg/dl for five NIDDM patients. Two other human studies have confirmed similar effects with one teaspoon daily.

Obata, M., Ito, S., Beppu, H., Fujita, K., and Nagatsu, T. (n.d.). Mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-thermal burn action of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger. Fujita Health University, Japan, 19-28.

Abstract: Carboxypeptidase (Cpase) was partially purified from Kidachi aloe (Aloe Arborescens Mill. var natalensis Berger) by FPLC system, and was administered intravenously to female ICR mice with inflammation. The enzyme preparation revealed significant effects on alleviation of pain and inhibition of vascular permeability in abdominal region. It also revealed an anti-thermal burn action on rat's hind paws, when it was administered to female Wister rat intravenously.

Olatunya, O. S., Olatunya, A. M., Anyabolu, H. C., Adejuyigbe, E. A., and Oyelami, O. A. (2012). Preliminary trial of aloe vera gruel on HIV infection. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18(9), 850-853. 

Abstract: Ten (10) young women diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria who did not meet the national criteria for the use of anti-retroviral drugs were managed with 30-40 mL of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) gruel daily. Methods: Their CD4 counts, general improvement, and physical well-being (including weight gain) were monitored over a 1-year period. The findings were compared with those of 20 age-matched controls who were on anti-retroviral drugs. One (1) patient who reacted badly to anti-retroviral drug switched over to aloe vera. Results: The average weight gain among those on aloe vera was 4.7 kg compared to 4.8 kg by those on anti-retroviral drug (p = 0.916). The average rise in CD4 count among them was 153.7 cells/lL compared to 238.85 cells/lL among the controls (p = 0.087). There was no significant side effect(s) in either group except in the 1 patient who switched over from anti-retroviral drugs to aloe vera gruel. Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that consumption of aloe vera may be of help to HIV-infected individuals in the tropics, given its availability and inexpensiveness.

Orndorff, S. (n.d.). Polymerase chain reaction: A new method for the identification of Aloe. Univera Phytoceuticals, Inc.

Abstract: Dr. Orndorff is using DNA as a way of identifying Aloe vera.


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