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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


Pareek, S., Nagaraj, A., Sharma, P., Atri, M., and Walia, S., Naidu, S., and Yousuf, A. (2013). Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: In vitro study. International Journal of Dentistry, 1-6. 

Abstract: Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5%sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used.SPSS16. Results: There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

Payne, C. (2013, September-October). The pain of painful bladder. Canadian Urol Assoc Journal, 7(9-10) S203-5. 

Abstract: Bladder pain can have a number of different etiologies. This brief summary provides an overview of bladder pain syndrome, including current evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management.

Payne, J. M., III. (1970, May). Tissue response to Aloe vera gel following periodontal surgery. Thesis submitted to Faculty of Baylor University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science.

Abstract: Aloe vera was used as a mouthwash in two cases in order to give some indication of the use of greater quantities of the gel.

Pelley, R. P., Wang, Y. T., and Waller, T. A. (1993, May). Current status of quality control of Aloe barbadensis extracts. SÖFW-Journal, Jahrgang (year’s issue), 119, 255-268.

Abstract: In this article, we will examine the developments in analytical chemistry that are bringing us closer to the goal of benchmark tests for Aloe gel identity and quality: measurement of ions, high pressure liquid chromatography of PLC, and measurement of total polysaccharides.

Pelley, R. P. (n.d.) Aloe polysaccharides and their measurement. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Texas Medical Branch.

Abstract: Dr. Pelley has done extensive research on the beneficial elements of Aloe vera.

Phatak, S., and Foster, H. E., Jr. (2006, January). The management of interstitial cystitis: An update. Nature Clinical Practice: Urology, 3(1), 45-53.

Abstract: Literature review on pain management for interstitial cystitis, including chronic pelvic pain, clinical trials, neuropathic pain, and bladder physiology.

Pittman, J. C. (1992). Immune enhancing effects of Aloe. Health Conscious,13(1), 2830.

Abstract: Galactomannans are a class of long-chain sugars derived from plants, which have been shown in laboratory and clinical studies to have a wide variety of immune stimulating and protective effects within the body. In studying the different sources of this polymer, it has been discovered that the Aloe barbadensis plant contains the greatest concentration of acetylated mannan which is also the most active form of mannans. This "acemannan" has been shown to have many effects in the body, mostly impacting on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which are intricately related. Super-Strength aloe vera is strongly recommended in the treatment of immune deficiency disorders. It plays a prominent role in the treatment of these illnesses.

Plaskett, L. G. (1998, January). The Health and Medical Use of Aloe Vera. Tacoma, WA: Life Sciences Press.

Abstract: Dr. Plaskett found that hundreds of scientific papers had been published over the years by researchers all around the world: almost the whole of this large body of work contained only positive reports on the effectiveness of Aloe.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997). Aloe vera and the 4 A's: Arthritis, Atheroma, Angina, and Asthma. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: It has not been widely appreciated that Aloe vera can make a significant contribution to the treatment of these four common and serious complaints. These four illnesses make an enormous contribution to human misery. The evidence that Aloe can help comes in part from laboratory work and in part from human clinical studies. This evidence is assembled and reviewed in this newsletter.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997, May). The exudate compounds of Aloe and their likely benefits in the gel or whole leaf extract. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: The compounds in Aloe vera exudate are often regarded as undesirable on account of their strong laxative action. Hence measures are usually taken to minimize the levels of these compounds in Aloe vera gels and juices that are intended for general health purposes. Such products do not generally cause any unwanted laxative effects. However, do ny small traces of thesePcompounds which remain in the products actually contribute positively to the biomedical activities of Aloe vera gels and juices? Do some individual members of this group of compounds perhaps lack any laxative effect at all and only contribute desirable, health-giving effects? These questions are discussed in this newsletter.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997, February). Aloe vera and its quality control: Checking upon the genuineness of products. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe is an extraordinarily beneficial plant remedy, but it has unfortunately been subject to misleading statements on product labels and in promotional literature. Dilution with water and adulteration with cheap additives have been common. This newsletter examines this extremely important aspect of Aloe.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997, January). Aloe vera and sports injuries. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera eases, through its anti-inflammatory and healing effects, a wide variety of sports injuries and troubles, including swelling and pain in joints, soreness of muscles, tendonitis, bursitis, strains, sprains, bruises, including bone bruises, cramps, skin irritation (shoulder-pad irritation and bra burn), fungal infections, turf burns, blisters, itching, and sunburn. In the less-frequent conditions of injury that involve deep trauma and in which surgery may have to be used, Aloe vera also soothes inflammation, eases pain, and promotes repair of the injury.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997). Aloe vera and its quality control: Checking upon the genuineness of products. Positive Health.

Abstract: The consumer can come to realise that some preservatives are needed, otherwise the liquid Aloe vera extract cannot possibly be stabilised for distribution and marketing. This does not apply to freeze-dried aloe vera powder, like that found in Desert Harvest products.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, December). Aloe vera against infections. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera has been tested against a variety of infections--viral, bacterial, and fungal. The exudate of Aloe has been confirmed again and again as having direct antimicrobial effects, killing invading pathological organisms. However, the principal benefits of Aloe with regard to infective agents comes from aloin-free or dealoinized extracts, which work by strengthening the body's own defenses. This newsletter closely examines these functions of Aloe.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, November). The crucial importance of correct processing of Aloe vera. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: The all-important biomedical activities of aloe juices and extracts depend critically upon applying strict rules of processing and handling. These determine whether or not the labile biochemicals in the living plant are successfully stabilized during manufacture and, subsequently, during distribution and storage.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, October). Aloe vera and diabetes. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera, in various forms, has been applied to the treatment of diabetes of animals and humans in a few small-scale trials and one larger trial. The results indicate that Aloe has a hypoglycaemic effect (i.e., a blood sugar lowering effect), and other effects, sufficient to make it extremely interesting for possible wide-scale use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The nature and implications of these findings are discussed in this newsletter.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, September). Aloe vera and cancer. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Administration of Aloe vera in various forms has been shown to inhibit the growth of animal cancers or to actually bring about shrinkage of already-grown tumors. From all the other knowledge we have about the actions of Aloe, it appears that the effects of Aloe upon tumors is mediated via the immume system. This newsletter presents a general discussion of the formation and growth of cancers from the standpoint of Aloe and one other plant extract substance, bromelain, whose actions may well synergize usefully with those of Aloe.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, August). How to use Aloe vera in alternative medicine practice. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera can easily be incorporated into practice in nutritional, naturopathy, herbalism, physiology, and within more orthodox practice. This newsletter examines the rationale that lies behind the use of Aloe in these contexts. It looks at what is involved in incorporating Aloe into practice, gives guidance on the types of product that are needed, and recommends a range of possible doses.

Plaskett, L.G. (1996, July). The healing properties of Aloe. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera contains Glucomannan, a special complex polysacchride composed largely of the sugar mannose. It interacts with special cell-surface receptors on those cells that repair damaged tissues, called fibroblasts, stimulating them and activating their faster growth and replication. Plant hormones in Aloe, called auxins and gibberellins, also accelerate healing by stimulating cell replication. These combined actions make Aloe a uniquely potent healing herb.

Plaskett, L.G. (1996, June). Aloe Vera and the human digestive system. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services.

Abstract: Trials indicate that Aloe Vera heals peptic ulcers, controls intestinal secretions to normal levels, influences the bowel flora, controls gastric and intestinal pH, improves the functioning of the pancreas, and limits adverse bacteria action in the colon, reducing putrefaction.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, May). Aloe vera eases inflammation. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Preparations of Aloe Vera have long been used to ease inflammatory processes originating from a wide variety of triggering causes. This article sets out the nature of inflammation, how Aloe Vera works to influence it, and what clinical problems can be helped as a result.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, April). Aloe vera and the human immune system. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services, Ltd.

Abstract: Specialized molecules in Aloe vera whole leaf extract interact with some special "receptor" substances that are embedded into the outer membrane of our immune system cells. The result is that the immune system cells are galvanized into action. In particular, the class of cells known as "phagocytes" increase the activities by which they attack and then engulf bacteria, waste products and debris. This increase in scavenging activities cleanses and protects the body, with knock-on benefits for a whole cascade of different medical conditions. The literature indicates that a common mechanism in this respect probably exists in both humans and animals and that both can benefit enormously from the use of Aloe vera.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, May). Aloe vera eases inflammation. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Preparations of Aloe Vera have long been used to ease inflammatory processes originating from a wide variety of triggering causes. This article sets out the nature of inflammation, how Aloe Vera works to influence it, and what clinical problems can be helped as a result.

Pokrovskaya, E. A. (1959). Aloe extract for treatment of acute rhinitis (nose congestion). Isbrannye voprosky klinicheskoi otorinolaringologii (Moskva), 84-87.

Abstract: Treatment of acute rhinitis with aloe extracted by squeezing aloe leaf.

Pommier, P., Gomez, F., Sunyach, M.P., D'Hombres, A., Carrie, C., and Montbarbon, X. (2004, April 15). Phase III randomized trial of calendula officinalis compared with Trolamine for the prevention of acute dermatitis during irradiation for breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 8:4, 1447-1453.

Abstract: The effect iveness of nonsteroid topical agents for the prevention of acute dermatitis during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has not been demonstrated. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of calendula (Pommade au Calendula par Digestion; Boiron Ltd, Levallois-Perret, France) with that of Trolamine (Biafine; Genmedix Ltd, France), which is considered in many institutions to be the reference topical agent. Between July 1999 and June 2001, 254 patients who had been operated on for breast cancer and who were to receive postoperative radiation therapy were randomly allocated to application of either Trolamine (128 patients) or calendula (126 patients) on the irradiated fields after each session. The primary end point was the occurrence of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher. Prognostic factors, including treatment modalities and patient characteristics, were also investigated. Secondary end points were the occurrence of pain, the quantity of topical agent used, and patient satisfaction. The occurrence of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher was significantly lower (41% v 63%; P < .001) with the use of calendula than with Trolamine. Moreover, patients receiving calendula had less frequent interruption of radiotherapy and significantly reduced radiation-induced pain. Calendula was considered to be more difficult to apply, but self-assessed satisfaction was greater. Body mass index and adjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy after lumpectomy were significant prognostic factors for acute dermatitis. Calendula is highly effective for the prevention of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher and should be proposed for patients undergoing postoperative irradiation for breast cancer.

Porru, D., Parmigiani, A., Tinelli, C., Barletta, D., Chjoussos, D., Di Franco, C., Bobbi, V., Bassi, S., Miller, O., Gardella, B., Nappi, R. E., Spinillo, A., and Rovereto, B. (2014, May). Oral D-mannose in recurrent urinary tract infections in women: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Urology, 7(3), 208-213.

Abstract: In recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) usual prophylactic antibiotic regimes do not change the long-term risk of recurrence. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of D-mannose in the treatment and prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. Methods: In this randomized cross-over trial female patients were eligible for the study if they had an acute symptomatic UTI and three or more recurrent UTIs during the preceding 12 months. Suitable patients were randomly assigned to antibiotic treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or to a regimen of oral D-mannose 1 g 3 times a day, every 8 hours for 2 weeks, and subsequently 1 g twice a day for 22 weeks. They received the other intervention in the second phase of the study, with no further antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary endpoint was evaluation of the elapsed time to recurrence; secondary endpoints were evaluation of bladder pain (VASp) and urinary urgency (VASu). Results: The results for quantitative variables were expressed as mean values and SD as they were all normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk test). In total, 60 patients aged between 22 and 54 years (mean 42 years) were included. Mean time to UTI recurrence was 52.7 days with antibiotic treatment, and 200 days with oral D-mannose (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Mean VASp, VASu score, and average numbers of 24-hour voidings decreased significantly. D-mannose appeared to be a safe and effective treatment for recurrent UTIs in adult women. A significant difference was observed in the proportion of women remaining infection free versus antibiotic treatment.

PR Newswire Association, Inc. (2002, January 2). Sales increase for Aloetouch exam gloves with onset of winter and dry season: Lined with Aloe vera, Aloetouch penetrates and helps moisturize dry skin. PR Newswire.

Abstract: Discusses how the use of medical exam gloves lined with Aloe vera gel helps improve the condition of the skin, rather than dry and irritate the skin, upon frequent hand washing and glove changing by medical professionals.

Prabjone, R., Thong-Ngam D., Wisedopas, N., Chatsuwan, T., and Patumraj, S. (2006). Anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the gastric micro-circulation of Helicobacter pylori-infected rats. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 35, 359-366. 

Abstract: This research was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium in the gastric micro-circulation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected rats. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control, H. pylori-infected, and A. vera-treated group (200 mg/kg b.w., twice daily). H. pylori-inoculation was induced in the rats by the administration of H. pylori solution. Intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy was used to examine leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules on the posterior surface of stomach area on different periods after administration of A. vera. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level was measured in blood collected at the end of experiment by using ELISA technique. The results showed that in H. pylori-infected group on day 8, the leukocyte adhesion was 13.40 + 1.00 cells/100 µm vessel length and the TNF-α was 76.76 + 23.18 pg/ml, which increased significantly (p < 0.05), compared with the control group (leukocyte adhesion control = 2.54 + 0.6 cells/100 µm vessel length and TNF-α control = 9.92 + 2.62 pg/ml). Treatment with A. vera reduced the leukocyte adhesion (5.5 + 0.5 cells/100 µm vessel length), and TNF-α (26.31 + 6.38 pg/ml) significantly (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. pylori enhanced leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the posterior stomach area markedly. This enhancement in leukocyte-endothelium interaction could be improved by the treatment of A. vera, associated with reduction in TNF-α level.

Pukha, M. V. (n.d.). Aloe extract electrophoresis in hemorrhages into vitreous body of traumatic etiology. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max Skousen, 106-111.

Abstract: Electrophoresis of the aloe extract produced positive effect in hemorrhages into the vitreous body of traumatic etiology. The positive action of aloe extract electrophoresis manifested in resolution of hemorrhage in the vitreous body, reduction of inflammation process and improvement of vision acuity. Aloe extract electrophoresis may be recommended as part of complex therapy in hemorrhages of the vitreous body and in hemophthalmia of traumatic etiology.

Pulse, T. L., and Uhlig, E. (1990, Winter). A significant improvement in a clinical pilot study utilizing nutritional supplements, essential fatty acids and stabilized Aloe vera juice in 29 HIV seropositive, ARC and AIDS patients. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 3(4).

Abstract: This study was concluded in November, 1989. As of June 1, 1990, all study patients from this research project who continue to be maintained on this treatment regimen have no adverse effects and only one death from K.S. Patient was non-compliant.

Raine, T. J., London, M. D., Goluch, L., Heggers, J. P., and Robson, M. C. (1980). Anti-prostaglandins and anti-thromboxanes for treatment of frostbite. American College of Surgeons 1980 Surgical Forum,XXXI, 557-559.

Abstract: A vital but unique study of frostbite testing on rabbit ears. Aloe vera and three other standard treatments for frostbite were used, and Aloe vera either matched or beat the others in every respect.

Rajasekaran, S., Ravi, K., Sivagnanam, K., and Subramanian, S. (2006). Beneficial effects of aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33, 232-237. 

Abstract: The effect of diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism is well established. The association of hyperglycaemia with an altera-tion of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess lipid-lowering properties. The present study was designed to examine the potential antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, hepatic transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), plasma and tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. In addition, the decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein--cholesterol and increased plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein--and very low-density lipoprotein--cholesterol in diabetic rats were restored to near normal levels following treatment with the extract. The fatty acid composition of the liver and kidney was analysed by gas chromatography. The altered fatty acid composition in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats was restored following treatment with the extract. Thus, the results of the present study provide a scientific. rationale for the use of Aloe vera as an antidiabetic agent.

Ranade, A. N., Wankhede, S. S., Ranpise, N. S., and Mundada, M. S. (2012, December). Development of bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers. AAPS PharmSciTech, 13(4), 1518-1523. 

Abstract: Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a “triple therapy” consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better anti-ulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer. A. vera gel powder is used for its cytoprotective action. Bilayer floating tablets were prepared by applying direct compression technique. The proportion of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time with good matrix integrity and total floating time. Polymer concentration was adjusted to get the maximum release in 8 h. The formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and HPMC K100M in a ratio of 85:15 along with 1:4 ratio of effervescent agents was found to give floating lag time of less than 1 min with total floating time of more than 8 h and 97.0% drug release in 8 h. In vivo study in rats meets the requirement of antiulcer activity for bilayer tablet in comparison to single amoxicillin as standard.

Rateaver, B. (1978, July). The healing power of the Aloe vera. The Body Forum Magazine, 1(6).

Abstract: The list of experiences with healing by application of Aloe juice, gel or its preparations is very long. They are summarized and condensed.

Rauwald, H. W. (1990). Naturally occurring quinones and their related reduction forms: Analysis and analytical methods. Pharm. Ztg. Wiss., 5, 169-181.

Abstract: Recent advances in analysis and analytical methods for naturally occurring quinones and their related reduction forms are briefly reviewed with respect to the isolation techniques, the qualitative and quantitative analysis, including pharmacopoeial analytics, and the structure determination. The main thrust is the analytical application to the acetate-derived class of anthranoids, particularly the group of diastereomeric 10-C-glucosylated anthrone and oxanthrone derivatives, the absolute configurations of which are reported here for the first time. The chapter covers literature data from 1982-89 in particular.

Reddy, K. K., Grossman, L., and Rogers, G. S. (2013, April). Common complementary and alternative therapies with potential use in dermatologic surgery: Risks and benefits. JAM Acad Dermatol, 68(4), e127-e135. 

Abstract: Commonly available complementary and alternative medicine therapies with potential use in the perioperative dermatologic surgery setting are reviewed, including reported beneficial and detrimental effects. Definitions, regulatory practices, and scientific sources of information are discussed. Improved knowledge and familiarity with relevant complementary and alternative medicine therapies promotes an improved dermatologic surgeon-patient relationship and may allow surgeons to capitalize on therapeutic actions and to mitigate complications.

Reuter, J., Jocher, A., Stump, J., Grossjohann, B., Franke, G., and Schempp, C. M. (2008). Investigation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe vera gel (97.5%) in the ultraviolet erythema test. Skin Pharmacol Physiology, 21, 106-110. 

Abstract: Aloe vera is a natural product that is frequently used in soothing skin care products such as after-sun lotions. In the present study we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of a highly concentrated A. vera gel in the UV erythema test in vivo. Methods: 40 volunteers with skin types II and III were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III monocenter study. Test areas on the back were irradiated with the 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose of UVB. Subsequently, the test areas were treated occlusively on 2 subsequent days with A. vera gel (97.5%), the positive controls (0.25% prednicarbate, 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel and 1% hydrocortisone cream) and a placebo gel. Erythema values were determined photometrically after 24 and 48 h. Results: A. vera gel (97.5%) significantly reduced UV-induced erythema after 48 h, being superior to 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel. In contrast, 1% hydrocortisone in cream was more efficient than A. vera gel. Conclusions: In this study after 48 h the A. vera gel (97.5%) displayed some anti-inflammatory effects superior to those of 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel. The A. vera gel tested here might be useful in the topical treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as UV-induced erythema.

Reynolds, G. W. (1966, September). The Aloes of Tropical Africa and Madagascar. Mbabane, Swaziland: The Aloes Book Fund.

Abstract: Book describes, illustrates, and discusses the different species of Aloe in Tropical Africa and Madagascar as well as their uses. For instance, Aloe aborescens works as well as Aloe barbadensis on x-ray burns.

Rishi, P., Rampuria, A., Tewari, R., and Koul, A. (2008). Phytomodulatory potentials of Aloe vera against salmonella OmpR-mediated inflammation. Phytotherapy Research, 22, 1075-1082. 

Abstract: Mediators released during inflammatory response play an essential role in eliminating microbes or microbial products. However, the uncontrolled release of cytotoxic substances characterized by extensive inflammation may adversely affect normal tissues. Under such conditions it is important to manage the hyperinflammation in order to change the clinical manifestations of the disease. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation by Aloe vera, a plant known to contain anti-inflammatory ingredients. It was observed that outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) extracted from the wild type strain of S. typhimurium caused inflammation of greater magnitude compared with the OMPs extracted from its mutant construct as evident from the oedema test as well as the hyperalgesic (flicking) response of the animals under experimental conditions. However, Aloe vera applied topically, administered intraperitoneally or in combination modulated the inflammatory response. The maximum effect was observed with the combined formulation indicating modulation at local as well as systemic levels. The results reveal that this modulation could be due to the potential of Aloe vera to decrease peroxidative damage via a decrease in the levels of monokines (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) and an increase in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, the presence of SOD in Aloe vera itself might be responsible for enhancing its levels in the macrophages. On the other hand, no significant change in the catalase activity was observed by Aloe vera treatment. The use of Aloe vera, therefore, seems to have a promising role in the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation.

Ritchey, C. R. (1955). Natural products from Aloe. Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science, July, 1972.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to isolate and to identify a compound or compounds that occur in Aloe barbadensis. Qualitative analyses were performed using a combination of thin-layer chromatography, gas - liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry.

Roberts, D. B., and Travis, E. L. (1995). Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., 32:4, 1047-1052.

Abstract: To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and © when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Methods and Materials: Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. To determine timing of application for best effect, gel was applied beginning on day -7, 0, or +7 relative to the day of irradiation (day 0) and continuing for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks. The right inner thigh of each mouse was scored on a scale of 0 to 3.5 for severity of radiation reaction from the seventh to the 35th day after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logic analysis and ED50 values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. Results: The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED50 values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED50 values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1week after irradiation. Conclusion: Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation.

Robson, M. C., Heggers, J. P., and Pineless, G. R. (1979). Myth, magic, witchcraft, or fact? Aloe vera revisited. American Burn Association Abstracts, 31, 65-66.

Abstract: These experimental data clearly show that the effects elicited by the Aloe vera extract are truly beneficial in a burn wound.

Rosca-Casian, O., Parvu, M., Vlase, L., and Tamas, M. (2007). Antifungal activity of Aloe vera leaves. Fitoterapia, 78, 219-222. 

Abstract: Aloe vera fresh leaves hydroalcoholic plant extract was tested against the mycelial growth of Botrytis gladiolorum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli, Heterosporium pruneti and Penicillium gladioli on Czapek-agar medium. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied between 80 and 100 µL/ml, depending on the fungal species.

Rovatti, B., and Brennan, R. J. (1959). Experimental thermal burns. Industrial Medicine and Surgery,28, 364-368.

Abstract: A comparative study of the immediate and delayed histopathological changes of the skin in untreated and treated thermal burns.

Rowe, T. D. (1940). Effect of fresh Aloe vera gel in the treatment of third-degree roentgen reactions on white rats. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association,29, 348-350.

Abstract: From the results obtained, fresh Aloe vera jell shows some promise of being of value in the treatment of X-ray reactions.

Rowe, T. D., Lovell, B. K., and Parks, L. M. (1941). Further observations on the use of Aloe vera leaf in the treatment of third-degree X-ray reactions. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association,30, 266-269.

Abstract: This present report deals with further observations on the use of the fresh jell, or pulp, of the leaf, as well as other portions of the leaf, in the treatment of experimentally produced third degree X-ray reactions on the skin of white rats.

Rubel, B. L. (1983, June). Possible mechanisms of the healing actions of Aloe gel. Cosmetics and Toiletries,98, 109-114.

Abstract: In this paper, some of the actives will be named, and known or theoretical mechanisms of action will be discussed.

Rudavsky, S. (2002, February 6). Aloe vera treats symptoms, but it's not a cure-all. The Miami Herald (via Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service).

Abstract: General discussion of uses of Aloe vera as it treats symptoms of different types of disease.

Russiyan, M., and Khlopushina, A. (n.d.) On the biogenic stimulators of Aloe arborescens. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data, Medexport, USSR, Moscow, Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute, Russia.

Abstract: Test was conducted to study the effect of cinnamic and salicylic acids in combination with extracts from fresh and preserved Aloe arborescens leaves.

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