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[Full articles with abstracts are available when there is a hyperlink as part of the reference. Just click on the blue link to read more.]


Sadiq, Y., Abdulkarim, A., and Mshelia, D. (2004). The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93, 33-37.

Abstract: The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.

Saini, D. K., and Saini, M. R. (2011). Evaluation of radioprotective efficacy and possible mechanism of action of Aloe gel. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31, 427-435. 

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to determine the optimum effective dose, dose reduction factor (DRF) and possible mechanism of action of Aloe gel. Three different doses of gel (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) were tested against 8 Gy induced damage in Swiss albino mice. A dose of 750 mg/kg body weight of Aloe was found the most effective while, 250 mg/kg body weight was the least effective in providing protection, as observed in the form of higher concentrations of blood GSH and vitamin C and lower level of serum LPO than irradiated animals at 1 h post irradiation and higher percent of survivors up to day 30 post irradiation. Treatment of mice with Aloe before irradiation with different doses of gamma radiation (6-12 Gy) delayed the onset and reduced the severity of signs of radiation sickness. The LD50/30 was calculated as 6.77 and 10 Gy for untreated irradiated and Aloe treated irradiated animals, respectively and its dose reduction factor was also calculated as 1.47. Aloe gel scavenged the free radicals, DPPH, ABTS and NO in a concentration dependent manner in vitro and therefore, scavenging of free radicals seems to be its important mechanism of action.

Sampath Kumar, K. P., Bhowmik, D., Chiranjib, and Biswajit. (2010). Aloe vera: A potential herb and its medicinal importance. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2(1), 21-29. 

Abstract: Aloe vera contains numerous vitamins and minerals, enzymes, amino acids, natural sugars and agents which may be anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial. The combination and balance of the plant’s ingredients are what purportedly gives it its healing properties. The part of the Aloe vera which is used are the leaves. The Aloe is an Emollient, Purgative and Vulnerary. It is also used for its antibacterial, anesthetic and antiseptic properties, and is good to use as a tool for restoration of tissue. It is most commonly used on burns and minor cuts, especially good for sunburns, although it is being used for the treatment of skin cancer. Aloe is very useful on rashes caused by Poison Ivy, and it may help to draw out infection. It may help with Vaginal Yeast Infections, although this is not solid at this time. Aloe be made into a warm tea, made from the juice as a wash for eyes. The washing of eyes with Aloe may protect the eyes from ultraviolet rays from the sun. It can be used as a purgative. Aloe is also an extremely powerful laxative, and it is not recommended that it is taken internally. It is recommended that the fresh juice from the plant is used, and not the store bought juice within other products or on its own. The reason for this is that the medicinal use of the plant diminishes with time, and there is much questioning about whether or not you can receive benefits from the store bought aloe, even if the product has been filled with preservatives. It gives a healthy and supple look to the skin by reducing wrinkles, curing acne, rejuvenating and giving it a youthful glow.

Sampedroa, M. C., Artolab, R. L., Muraturec, M., Muratureb, D., Ditamoa, Y., Rotha, G. A., and Kivatinitz, S. (2004). Mannan from Aloe saponaria inhibits tumoral cell activation and proliferation. International Immunopharmacology, 4, 411-418. 

Abstract: In this study, we tested the antiproliferative effects of mannan from Aloe saponaria using normal murine (SpMC) and human cells (PBMC) and several tumoral cell lines. Employing flow cytometry, it could be determined that mannan inhibits the proliferative response in normal and tumoral cells. Mannan affects the expression of CD3+ SpMC indicating that mannan inhibits mainly T lymphocyte proliferative response. Also in SpMC cultured with or without mitogen mannan produces an increase of an activation marker (CD25). On C1498 cell line, mannan reduces CD3 expression and abolishes the CD25 expression. In conclusion, mannan has a dual beneficial effect when applied to normal and tumoral cells at the same time by inhibiting the activation of cancer cells and improving that of normal ones.

Sani, B., Wijit, B., Polkit, S., and Pasutha, T. (2014). Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology. 102, 310-317.

Abstract Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [3H] thymidine incor-poration assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blot-ting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization. In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.

Sarkar, D., Dutta, A., Das, M., Sarkar K., Mandal, C., and Chatterjee, M. (2005, November 1). Effect of Aloe vera on nitric oxide production by macrophages during inflammation. Indian Journal of Pharmacology.

Abstract: AVL possesses acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity, which is partly mediated by reduced production of NO, which in turn prevents the release of inflammatory mediators.

Sheets, M. A., Unger, B. A., Giggleman, G. F. Jr., and Tizzard, I. R. (1991, March). Studies on the effect of acemannan on retrovirus infections: Clinical stabilization of feline leukemia virus-infected cats. Molecular Biotherapy, 3, 41-45.

Abstract: Feline leukemia is a disease induced by an oncornavirus infection that inevitably causes clinically affected cats to die. It has been estimated that 40% of cats are dead within 4 weeks and 70% within 8 weeks of the onset of clinical symptoms. Acemannan is a complex carbohydrate with both immuno-stimulatory and direct antiviral properties. Administration of acemannan for 6 weeks intraperitoneally to clinically symptomatic cats significantly improved both the quality of life and the survival rate. Twelve weeks after initiation of treatment, 71% of treated cats were alive and in good health.

Singh, R. P., Dharnalakshmi, D. A., and Rao, A. R. (2000). Chemomodulatory action of Aloe vera on the profiles of enzymes associated with carcinogen metabolism and antioxidant status regulation in mice. Phytomedicine, 7(3), 209-219. 

Abstract: The effect of two doses (30 µl and 60 µl/day/mice daily for 14 days) of the fresh leaf pump extract of Aloe vera was examined on carcinogen-metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. The modulatory effect of the pulp extract was also examined on extrahepatic organs (lung, kidney, and forestomach) for the activities of glutathione S-transferace, DT-diophorase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The positive control mice were treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Significant increases in the levels of acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were observed in the liver. Aloe vera significantly reduced the levels of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5. Thus, Aloe vera is clearly an inducer of phase-II enzyme system. Treatment with both doses of Aloe caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against prooxidant-induced membrane and cellular damage. The microsomal and cytosolic protein was significantly enhanced by Aloe vera, indicating the possibility of its involvement in the induction of protein synthesis. BHA, an antioxidant compound, provided the authenticity of our assay protocol and response of animals against modulator. The pump extract was effective in inducing GST, DTD, SOD, and catalase as measured in extrahepatic organs. Thus, besides liver, other organs (lung, kidney, and forestomach) were also influenced favorably by Aloe vera in order to detoxify reactive metabolites, including chemical carcinogens and drugs.

Schauss, A. G. (1990). Aloe vera. Tacoma, WA: American Institute for Biosocial Research.

Abstract: An overview of aloe vera.

Schechter, S. R. (n.d.). (1994, February). Aloe vera: The healing plant. Health Foods Business, 23-24.

Abstract: General information about the benefits of Aloe vera.

Shelton, R. M. (1991, October). Aloe vera: Its chemical and therapeutic properties. International Journal of Dermatology, 30(10), 679-683.

Abstract: In this review, the historical uses of Aloe will be highlighted and its chemical composition and biologic effects will be described.

Shin, S., Kim, S., Oh, H. E., Kong, H., Shin, E., Do, S. G., Jo, T. H., Park, Y. I., Lee, C. K., and Kim, K. (2012). Dietary aloe QDM complex reduces obesity-induced insulin resistance and adipogenesis in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Immune Network, 12(3), 96-103. 

Abstract: Obesity-induced disorders contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, fatty liver diseases, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we evaluated whether the Aloe QDM complex could improve metabolic disorders related to blood glucose levels and insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of Aloe QDM complex or pioglitazone (PGZ) or metformin (Met) and were compared with unsupplemented controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quantify the expression of obesity-induced inflammation. Dietary Aloe QDM complex lowered body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and leptin levels, and markedly reduced the impairment of glucose tolerance in obese mice. Also, Aloe QDM complex significantly enhanced plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity via AMPK activity in muscles. At the same time, Aloe QDM decreased the mRNA and protein of PPARγ/LXRα and scavenger receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Dietary Aloe QDM complex reduces obesity-induced glucose tolerance not only by suppressing PPARγ/LXRα but also by enhancing AMPK activity in the WAT and muscles, both of which are im-portant peripheral tissues affecting insulin resistance. The Aloe QDM complex could be used as a nutritional intervention against T2D.

Shin, E., Shim, K. S., Kong, H., Lee, S., Shin, S., Kwon, J., Jo, T. H., Park, Y. I., Lee, C. K., and Kim, K. (2011). Dietary aloe improves insulin sensitivity via the suppression of obesity-induced inflammation in obese mice. Immune Network, 1(1), 59-67.

Abstract: Background: Insulin resistance is an integral feature of meta-bolic syndromes, including obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we evaluated whether the aloe component could reduce obesity-induced inflammation and the occurrence of metabolic disorders such as blood glucose and insulin resistance. Methods: Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of aloe formula (PAG, ALS, Aloe QDM, and Aloe QDM complex) or pioglitazone (PGZ) and were compared with unsupplement-ed controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quanti-fy the expression of obesity-induced inflammation. Results: Aloe QDM lowered fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with HFD. Obesity-induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, -6, -12, TNFα) and chemokine (CX3CL1, CCL5) mRNA and protein were decreased markedly, as was macro-phage infiltration and hepatic triglycerides by Aloe QDM. At the same time, Aloe QDM decreased the mRNA and protein of PPARγ/LXRα and 11β-HSD1 both in the liver and WAT. Conclusion: Dietary aloe formula reduces obesity-in-duced glucose tolerance not only by suppressing inflammatory responses but also by inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the WAT and liver, both of which are important pe-ripheral tissues affecting insulin resistance. The effect of Aloe QDM complex in the WAT and liver are related to its dual action on PPARγ and β-HSD1 expression and its use as a nutritional intervention against T2D and obesity-related inflammation is suggested.

Ship, A. G., & Einstein, Albert. (1977, October 17). Is topical Aloe vera plant mucus helpful in burn treatment? Journal of the American Medical Association,238(16), 1770.

Abstract: This article is not a clinical study. It acknowledges that application of Aloe vera to a burn provides immediate pain relief and speeds the healing process, with no infection or systemic symptoms resulting, and answers what the ingredients of this plant are that give these results.

Simoes, J., Nunes, F. M., Domingues, P., Coimbra, M. A., and Domingues, M. R. (2012). Mass spectrometry characterization of an Aloe vera mannan presenting immunostimulatory activity. Carbohydrate Polymers, 90, 229-236. 

Abstract: Aloe vera acemannan is a polysaccharide composed by a backbone of (1-4)-linked d-mannose residues interspersed by few glucose residues, acetylated in O-2, O-3, and O-6 containing side chains constituted by 0-6-linked single α-D-galactose and α-L-arabinose residues. This structural features are rather similar to mannans from other sources, namely coffee and locust bean gum. However, Aloe vera acemannan and coffee mannans present immunostimulatory activity but locust bean gum does not. In order to know more about the structural features of a commercial preparation of Aloe vera presenting comparable immunostimulatory activity to that observed for coffee mannans, this preparation was submitted to sugar and methylation analysis. To gain further insight to the structural details of the mannans, focusing in the study of acetylation pattern, a specific hydrolysis with an endo-β-(1→4)-d-mannanase was performed and the resulting oligosaccharides (OS) were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MS. The majority of the OS obtained for acemannan had a ratio of two acetyl groups per sugar residue. The observation of OS highly acetylated as well as non-acetylated OS, allowed to infer a non-homogeneous distribution of the acetyl groups. Also, it was observed OS presenting fully acetylated arabinose residues. The occurrence of a high abundance of acetylated residues shows that this polysaccharide contains odd acetylation content. These unusual features are reinforced by the presence of acetylated side chains, only previously observed in chemically acetylated mannans with immunostimulatory activity prepared from coffee residue. The comparison with other galactoman-nans allowed to infer that lower branching, shorter chains, and higher acetylation seems to promote the immunostimulatory activity attributed to these polysaccharides.

Simren, M., and Storsrud, S. (2014, March). Aloe vera versus placebo for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Sweden: Sahlgrenska University Hospital, NCT01400048. 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of aloe vera in the treatment of IBS patients in a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study.

Skousen, M. B. (1976). Russian Research Reports. Cypress, CA: Aloe Vera Research Institute.

Abstract: No other nation in the world has accomplished the intensive research on Aloe as has the USSR

Skripkin, U. K., and Sharapova, G. Y. (1963). An experiment of cream application with biostimulator juice of Aloe. Sources: Chair of Skin and Venereal Diseases (Professor M.M. Zheltakiv) of the II Moscow Medical Institute (N. I. Pirogova), 15/VI.

Abstract: In local application of biostimulating juice of aloe in cream form, favorable activity was noted particularly in people with moderately dry skin; along with improvement in dryness of the skin went the smoothing way of wrinkles, improved skin vitality and elasticity.

Smoot, E. Clyde (MD). (1981, March 14-17). The effects of anti-inflammatory agents on acute and late radiation skin changes in the rat. 27 th Annual Meeting Report, Plastic Surgery Research Council, San Diego, California.

Abstract: This article by the University of Chicago Burn Center deals with one of the earliest recognized benefits of Aloe vera. Back in the thirties, when x-Ray treatments were first being used, medical reports showed that Aloe vera was the only thing that would heal many of the radiation induced lesions of the skin. Now, with this testing on rats, the data is established in true, scientific testing.

Soeda, M., Fujiwara, M., and Otomo, M. (1964, December). Studies on the effect of Cape Aloe for irradiation leucopenia. Nippon Acta Radiologica, 249, 1109-1112.

Abstract: One of the many studies made by the Japanese and Koreans. It is a positive report of another type of Aloe plant, known as Cape Aloe, which shows that it, too, has very fine medicinal qualities.

Soeda, M., Otomo, M., Ome, M., and Kawashima, K. (1966). Studies on anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of Cape Aloe. Nippon Saikingaku Zasshi, 21(10), 609-614.

Abstract: Very short article on anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of Cape Aloe.

Speranza, G., Gramatica, P., Dada, G., and Manitto, P. (1985). Aloeresin C, a bitter C,O-diglucoside from Cape Aloe. Phytochemistry, 24(7), 1571-1753.

Abstract: A new bitter C,O-diglucoside, aloeresin C, was isolated from commercial Cape aloe. Its structure was established by spectral and chemical methods.

Spoerke, D. G., and Ekins, B. R. (1980, December). Aloe vera: Fact or quackery. Veterinary and Human Toxicology,22(6), 418-422.

Abstract: Overview and report on the popularity of Aloe vera.

Srinivas, C. R. (2003, May 1). Aggravation of preexisting dermatosis with Aloe vera. (Letter to Editor). Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology.

Abstract: This report highlights the fact that even commonly used relatively safe medications can occasionally cause sensitivity.

Steinberg, D. C. (1982, February). Mucopolysaccharides for cosmetics. Cosmetic Technology, 41-44.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the structure, formation, and role of mucopolysaccharides as well as the benefits of applying hydrolyzed mucopolysaccharides to the skin.

Strickland, Faith M., Pelley, Ronald P., & Kripke, Margaret L. (1994, February). Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity by Aloe barbadensis gel extract. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 102(2), 197-204.

Abstract: These studies demonstrate that topical application of Aloe barbadensis gel extract to the skin of UV-irradiated mice ameliorates UV-induced immune suppression by a mechanism that does not involve DNA damage or repair.

Sudworth, R. (n.d.). The Use of Aloe vera in dentistry. Positive Health.

Abstract: The uses of Aloe vera in dentistry are multiple. It is extremely helpful in the treatment of gun disease; it reduces the bleeding of the gums; it is powerfully antiseptic in gum pockets and its antifungal properties help greatly in the problem of denture stomatitis. It protects and promotes healing.

Sujatha, G., Kumar, G. S., Muruganandan, J., and Prasad, T. S. (2014, October). Aloe Vera in Dentistry. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(10), ZI01-ZI02. 

Abstract: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.

Suga, T., and Hirata, T. (1983, June). The efficacy of the Aloe plants chemical constituents and biological activities. Cosmetics and Toiletries, 98, 105-108.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the usefulness of the aloe plants for use in dermatological preparations or for treatment of internal disorders.

Suga, T., and Hirata, T. (1978). Biosynthesis of Aloenin in Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 51(3), 872-877.

Abstract: A new bitter glucoside, named aloenin, with an inhibitory activity for the gastric juice secretion of rats, was isolated from the plant. We also examined other bioactive components and chemical constituents of the plant.

Suga, T., Hirata, T., and Tori, K. (1974). Structure of aloenin, a bitter glucoside from Aloe species. Chemistry Letters, 715-718.

Abstract: The structure of aloenin, a bitter glucoside from Aloe species, has been reinvestigated and elucidated to be 6-(2'-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-hydroxy-6'-methyl)phenyl-4-methoxy-2-pyrone (2) by a combination of the chemical and spectroscopic methods.

Suga, T., Hirata, T., and Odan, M. (1972). Aloenin, a new bitter glucoside from Aloe species. Chemistry Letters, 547-550.

Abstract: In connection with biochemical examinations of the plant, we isolated a new bitter glucoside, named aloenin, to elucidate its structure. We now wish to describe evidences leading to structure 1 for aloenin.

Suzuki, I, Saito, H, Inoue, S, Migita, S,, and Takahashi, T. (1979). Purification and characterization of two lectins from Aloe arborescens Mill. Journal of Biochemistry, 85, 163-171.

Abstract: S-1 has a strong hemaglutinating activity. On the other hand, P-2 has not only hemaglutinating activity but also mitogenic activity on lymphocytes, precipitate-forming reactivity with serum proteins, one of which is a 2-macroglobulin, and complement C3 activating activity via the alternate pathway.

Syed, T. A., Ahmad, S. A., Hold, A. H., Ahmad, S. A., Ahmad, S. H., and Afzal, M. (1996, August). Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 1(4), 505-509.

Abstract: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of topical Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream to cure patients with psoriasis vulgaria. The findings of this study suggest that topically applied Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream is more effective than placebo, and has not shown toxic or any other objective side-effects. Therefore, the regimen can be considered a safe and alternative treatment to cure patients suffering from psoriasis.

Talmadgea, J., Chaveza, J., Jacobsa, L., Mungera, C., Chinnahb, T., Chow, J. T., Williamson, D., and Yates, K. (2004). Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and molecular profiling of activity. International Immunopharmacology, 4, 1757-1773. 

Abstract: Products derived from the inner gel of the Aloe vera L. plant have demonstrated multiple clinical activities, and are used routinely to accelerate wound healing. However, typical of natural products, the complex nature of Aloe vera gels may contribute to diverse pharmacologic activities. Our focus on the hematopoietic activities of Aloe vera extracts is extended by these functional studies, which used purified fractions from Aloe vera gel and included a preliminary organ-specific in vitro molecular profile. Studies using a N99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera extracts revealed increased hematopoietic and hematologic activity compared to the starting material. In addition, this fraction differentially regulated liver and lung cytokine mRNA levels, resulting in significant increases in message for hematopoietic cytokines [granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF)]. This profile of activity differed from another fraction obtained from Aloe vera, suggesting the potential for diverse pharmacologic activity. The molecular studies were undertaken using co-cultures of organ slices to limit the amount of purified material required. In summary, these studies revealed significant hematopoietic activity by both pharmacologic and molecular analysis using a N99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera gels.

Taylor, E. (2001, October 9). The prickly guardian of good health; Inside out. (Features). Daily Post Liverpool, England.

Abstract: General health benefits of Aloe vera use.

Tchou, M. T, (1943). Aloe vera (jelly leeks). Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 47, 249.

Abstract: Positive personal experience with Aloe in China and then again in the U.S. By combining discoveries and experiences, human life may yet be made better and happier.

The Aloe Vera Information Centre. (n.d.). Aloe vera and digestion, irritable bowel and arthritis. Positive Health.

Abstract: Aloe is now widely used to help a variety of conditions of the digestive tract. Aloe vera may be taken both internally as a juice or as a gel applied to the painful joint.

Tizard, I. (n.d.). Aloe-derived carbohydrates reduce inflammation by blocking neutrophil emigration mediated by certain beta integrins. Texas A&M University, Consultant for Carrington Laboratories.

Abstract: This abstract presented by Dr. Ian Tizard of Texas A&M University reveals the effects Aloe has on inflammation.

Tizard, I. (2002, June 28). Examining the healing mystery of Aloe. Texas A&M University.

Abstract: General discussion of Aloe and possible reasons for its ability to help health.

Tri-K Industries, Inc. (n.d.) Aloe vera gel: Efficacy documentation via cell proliferation rate studies. Emerson, NJ: author.

Abstract: Article documents the wound and burn healing efficiency of Aloe vera. All the work is positive. . . . Aloe vera has been shown to be an effective agent.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. (2004, July 27). Fluid derived from Aloe plant prolongs life after hemorrhagic shock in animal study. Science Daily.

Abstract: A novel resuscitation fluid derived from Aloe vera that was dev eloped by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh's McGowan Institute for Generative Medicine has the potential to save the lives of patients with massive blood loss, according to results of an animal study published in the August edition of the medical journal Schock. The findings could have a significant impact on the treatment of hemorrhagic shock caused by both civilian and military trauma.

Unknown. (2004, September 13). Anatomy of an ingredient: Aloe vera. (Features). The Independent. London, England.

Abstract: Lists nutrients and substances of Aloe, its properties, and ways in which it can be used.

Unknown. (2002, March 21). Aloe vera cuts ulcer risk. BBC News Online: Health.

Abstract: A gel made from the herb aloe vera may help to treat and prevent stomach and intestinal ulcers. Article also discusses Aloe vera trials in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Unknown. (2002, March 22). Aloe vera gel could combat ulcers. Nutra Ingredients. Europe.

Abstract: Aloe vera in the treatment of ulcers and IBS.

Unknown. (1951). Aloe vera in the Philippines. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, Bureau of Printing, Manila.

Abstract: This brief section in the official book on plants in the Philippines gives a great many interesting bits of information about Aloe vera.

Unknown. (n.d.). Comprehensive List of Ingredients for Aloe vera gel.

Abstract: Comprehensively lists the ingredients of Aloe vera gel.

Unknown. (n.d.). Analytical and reporting procedures.

Abstract: Four points of reference as reliable indicators in defining Aloe vera. Formula as a method for defining 100% aloe vera.

Valverde, J. M., Valero, D., Martínez-Romero, D., Guillén, F., Castillo, S., and Serrano, M. (2005). Novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(20), 7807-7813.

Abstract: Scientists found a novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel provided a good means of preserving the quality and safety of table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life, and noted the edible coating would be an "innovative and interesting" alternative to the use of post-harvest chemical treatments.

Van de Merwe, J., and Nordling, J. (2006, February 28). Interstitial cystitis: Definitions and confusable diseases. Proceedings of ESSIC Meeting 2005 Baden, 1-13.

Abstract: This report is the summary of the consensus obtained on definitions and confusable diseases for painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis during the ESSIC meeting in Baden, 16-18 June 2005.

Vandana, K. R., Yalavarthi, P. R., Sundaresan, C. R., Sriramaneni, R. N., and Vadlamudi, H. C. (2014, June). In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel. Current Drug Discovery Technologies, 11(2), 162. 

Abstract: The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate “nimesulide: Aloe vera transemulgel” (NAE) and to carry out in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04%) was observed compared to CNG (44.72%) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4% inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6%). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4% drug content) compared to CNG (70.5% drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect.

Vazquez, B., Avila, G., Segura, D., and Escalante, B. (1996). Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 55, 69-75.

Abstract: We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory agents indomethacine and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids, and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type Δ5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have anti-inflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.

Vinson, J. A., Al Kharrat, H., and Andreoli, L. (2005). Effect of Aloe vera preparations on the human bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Phytomedicine, 12, 760-765. 

Abstract: There are no literature references describing the effect of consumption of Aloe vera liquid preparations on the absorption of water- or fat-soluble vitamins. There is a very large population worldwide which consume vitamins and many people also consume Aloe. Thus we report the effect of Aloe on the human absorption of vitamins C and E, the most popular vitamin supplements. The plasma bioavailability of vitamins C and E were determined in normal fasting subjects, with eight subjects for vitamin C and ten subjects for vitamin E. In a random crossover design, the subjects consumed either 500 mg of ascorbic acid or 420 mg of vitamin E acetate alone (control), or combined with 2 oz of two different Aloe preparations (a whole leaf extract, or an inner fillet gel). Blood was collected periodically up to 24 h after consumption. Plasma was analyzed for ascorbate and tocopherol by HPLC with UV detection. There was no significant difference in the areas under the plasma ascorbate-time curves among the groups sincerely due to large differences within the groups. For comparative purposes the control area was 100%. The Aloe Gel area was 304%, and Aloe Whole Leaf 80%. Only Aloe Gel caused a significant increase in plasma ascorbate after 8 and 24 h. For vitamin E, the results for the relative areas were control 100%, Gel 369%, and Leaf (198%). Only the Aloes produced a significant increase in plasma tocopherol after 6 and 8 h. Both Aloes were significantly different from the control after 8 h. Aloe Gel was significantly different from the baseline after 24 h. The Aloes slowed down the absorption of both vitamins with maximum concentrations 2-4 h later than the control. There was no difference between the two types of Aloe. The results indicate that the Aloes improve the absorption of both vitamins C and E. The absorption is slower and the vitamins last longer in the plasma with the Aloes. Aloe is the only known supplement to increase the absorption of both of these vitamins and should be considered as a complement to them.

Vogler, B. K., and Ernest, E. (1999, October). Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. British Journal of General Practice, 49, 823-828.

Abstract: The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. Often general practitioners seem to know less than their patients about its alleged benefits. Aim: To define the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera, a popular herbal remedy in the United Kingdom. Method: Four independent literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, and the Cochrane Library. Only controlled clinical trials (on any indication) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. All trials were read by both authors and data were extracted in a standardized, pre-defined manner. Results: Ten studies were located. They suggest that oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced injuries. It might be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. Whether it promotes wound healing is unclear. There are major caveats associated with all of these statements. Conclusion: Even though there are some promising results, clinical effectiveness of oral or topical aloe vera is not sufficiently defined at present.


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