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ANTHRAQUINONES

MUST READ ARTICLE: International Aloe Science Council. (2013, August 25). IASC debunks CSPI aloe warning.

Abstract: The International Aloe Science Council (IASC) responded to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) recent news release telling consumers to avoid taking aloe vera orally, with what IASC executive director, Devon Powell, called "some simple facts." Recently published studies on consumer products showed no carcinogenic effects. Purified (decolorized) aloe vera: no known carcinogenic concerns according to internationally recognized cancer organization. The vast majority of aloe vera products for oral consumption are decolorized or purified. The NTP test article is chemically distinct from what is found in consumer products for oral consumption.

Ayyangar, N. R., Bapat, D. S., and Joshi, B. S. (1961, October). Anthraquinone and anthrone series, Part XXVI: A new synthesis of chrysophanol, rhein, islandicin, emodin and physcion. J. Sci. Industr. Res.,20B, 9-13.

Abstract: A new general method for the synthesis of chrysophanol, rhein, islandicin, emodin and physcion, starting from common dye intermediates such as 1-amino-5-chloranthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, is described. Though a number of stages such as halogenation, deamination, replacement of halogen by hydroxyl, methoxylation and demethylation are involved in the synthesis, the reactions proceed without difficulty and good yields are obtained.

Gyanchandani, N. D., and Nigam, I. C. (1969, July). Anthraquinone drugs, II: Inadvertent acetylation of Aloe-emodin during preparation of aglycones from crude drugs: UV, IR, and NMR spectra of the products. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,58(7), 833-835.

Abstract: Hydrolysis of anthraquinone glycosides with acetic acid leads to a partial acetylation of aloe-emodin, one of the liberated aglycones. With the aid of UV, IR, and NMR spectra, this hitherto unreported compound has been characterized as aloe-emodin monoacetate. The same compound is also formed when the simultaneous oxidation and hydrolysis of the glycosides is effected with FeCl 3 in presence of HCl and the resultant aglycones extracted with ethyl acetate.

Hirata, T., and Suga, T. (1978). Structure of aloenin, a new biologically-active bitter glucoside from Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 51(3), 842-849.

Abstract: Aloenin, a new bitter glucoside with an inhibitory activity for the gastric juice secretion of rats, was isolated from the leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis.

Hirata, T., Sakano, S., and Suga, T. (1981). Biotransformation of aloenin, a bitter glucoside constituent of Aloe arborescens, by rats. Experientia, 37, 1252-1253.

Abstract: Aloenin has been established to show an inhibitory activity for gastric juice.

Makino, K., Yagi, A., and Itsuo, N. (1974). Studies on the constituents of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger. II. The structures of two new aloesin esters. Chem. Pharm. Bulletin, 22(7), 1565-1570.

Abstract: Two new aloesin esters were isolated from the fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger. These esters are the first naturally occurring 2"-O-acylated C-glucosyl compounds.

McCarthy, T. J., and Mapp, R. K. (1970, January). A comparative investigation of methods used to estimate aloin and related compounds in Aloes. Planta Medica,18(1), 36-43.

Abstract: The assay of aloin in aloes are investigated using different methods, and these are discussed. Furthermore, the presence of homonataloin, aloinosides and similar compounds in aloes are investigated in relation to these assay methods. The effect of heating aloe juice in relation to aloin destruction is also discussed.

Rauwald, H. W. (1990). Naturally occurring quinones and their related reduction forms: Analysis and analytical methods. Pharm. Ztg. Wiss., 5, 169-181.

Abstract: Recent advances in analysis and analytical methods for naturally occurring quinones and their related reduction forms are briefly reviewed with respect to the isolation techniques, the qualitative and quantitative analysis, including pharmacopoeial analytics, and the structure determination. The main thrust is the analytical application to the acetate-derived class of anthranoids, particularly the group of diastereomeric 10-C-glucosylated anthrone and oxanthrone derivatives, the absolute configurations of which are reported here for the first time. The chapter covers literature data from 1982-89 in particular.

Speranza, G., Gramatica, P., Dada, G., and Manitto, P. (1985). Aloeresin C, a bitter C,O-diglucoside from Cape Aloe. Phytochemistry, 24(7), 1571-1753.

Abstract: A new bitter C,O-diglucoside, aloeresin C, was isolated from commercial Cape aloe. Its structure was established by spectral and chemical methods.

Suga, T., and Hirata, T. (1978). Biosynthesis of Aloenin in Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 51(3), 872-877.

Abstract: A new bitter glucoside, named aloenin, with an inhibitory activity for the gastric juice secretion of rats, was isolated from the plant. We also examined other bioactive components and chemical constituents of the plant.

Suga, T., Hirata, T., and Tori, K. (1974). Structure of aloenin, a bitter glucoside from Aloe species. Chemistry Letters, 715-718.

Abstract: The structure of aloenin, a bitter glucoside from Aloe species, has been reinvestigated and elucidated to be 6-(2'-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-hydroxy-6'-methyl)phenyl-4-methoxy-2-pyrone (2) by a combination of the chemical and spectroscopic methods.

Suga, T., Hirata, T., and Odan, M. (1972). Aloenin, a new bitter glucoside from Aloe species. Chemistry Letters, 547-550.

Abstract: In connection with biochemical examinations of the plant, we isolated a new bitter glucoside, named aloenin, to elucidate its structure. We now wish to describe evidences leading to structure 1 for aloenin.

Yagi, A., Shoyama, Y., and Nishioka, I. (1983). Formation of tetrahydroanthracene glucosides by callus tissue of Aloe saponaria. Phytochemistry, 22(6), 1483-1484.

Abstract: Callus tissue of Aloe Saponaria grown in the dark produced a new tetrahydroanthracene glucoside, I-oxo-2-methoxy-4,8,9-trihydroxy-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroanthracene (aloesaponol IV) 8-O-β-D-glucoside, together with known tetrahydroanthracene glucosides. The effect of light on the formation of tetrahydroanthracene and anthraquinone glucosides is discussed.

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