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Beikert, F. C., Schoenfeld, B. S., Frank, U., and Augustin, M. (2013 Jan). Anti-inflammatory potential of seven plant extracts in the ultraviolet erythema test: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Hautarzt, 64(1), 40-46.

Abstract: Phytotherapeutics are widely used in medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory potential of seven medical plant extracts using the ultraviolet (UV) erythema test. Aloe vera, Chamomilla recutita, Melissa officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Coriandrum sativum showed an anti-inflammatory effect compared to UV-control and unguentum leniens. However, the results were only statistically significant for Aloe vera. All tested plant extracts were well tolerated. Aloe vera possesses an anti-inflammatory effect on UV-induced erythemas.

Cassileth, B. (2011, June 13). Aloe vera (aloe barbadensis, aloe capensis). Oncology, 25:7, 1-3

Abstract: In vitro studies indicate that aloe has immunomodulatory, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Emodin, an extract of aloe, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cell lines via p53- and p21-dependent pathways. One study showed topical aloe vera to be superior to silver sulfadiazine (drug information on silver sulfadiazine) cream, an agent commonly used to treat second-degree burns. A few trials have explored aloe’s anticancer effects. Concurrent oral administration of aloe with chemotherapy was reported to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic cancers and to prevent oral mucositis. Data on topical aloe’s role in alleviating radiation therapy-induced skin damage are inconsistent. More research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of aloe vera in cancer patients.

Davis, R. H., Di Donato, J. J., Hartman, G. M., and Haas, R. C. (1992). Mannose-6-phosphate: Anti-inflammatory and activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. Submitted for 1993 William J. Stickle Award.

Abstract: This study attempts to define the role of the two major sugar constituents in the Aloe plant, mannose and glucose. We analyzed these sugars in the phosphorylated form. The significance of this study lies in the ability of the phosphorylated sugars to fit the growth factor receptors on the surface of the fibroblast.

Davis, R. H., Parker, W. L., and Merdock, D. P. (1991, January). Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. Submitted for the 1989 William J. Stickel Awards.

Abstract: This study attempts to use Aloe vera with hydrocortisone acetate to improve the effectiveness of this type of therapy. Inflammation is a major component of many of the conditions treated by the podiatrist. The significance of this study lies in the ability to increase steroid potency by using a natural substance.

Davis, R. H., Di Donato, J. J., Hartman, G. M., and Haas, R. C. (1994, February). Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 84(2), 77-81.

Abstract: Aloe vera improves wound healing and inhibits inflammation. Since mannose-6-phosphate is the major sugar in the Aloe gel, the authors examined the possibility of its being an active growth substance. Mice receiving 300 mc/kg of mannose-6-phosphate had improved wound healing over saline controls. This dose also had anti-inflammatory activity. The function of mannose-6-phosphate in A. vera is discussed.

Davis, R. H., Rosenthal, K. Y., Cesario, L. R., and Rouw, Gregory A. (1989, August). Processed Aloe vera administered topically inhibits inflammation. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 79(8), 395-397.

Abstract: Aloe vera preparations were evaluated for topical anti-inflammatory activity using the croton oil-induced edema assay. These results may be used as a baseline to assess the biologic activity of A. vera in the treatment of inflammation by podiatric physicians.

Davis, R. H., Leitner, M. G., and Russo, J. M. (1987, November). Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera as measured by ear swelling. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 77(11), 610-612.

Abstract: The authors believe that this study provides a major breakthrough for Aloe and an effective treatment against inflammation for podiatrists.

Davis, R. H., Shipiro, E., and Agnew, P. S. (1985, May). Topical effect of Aloe with ribonucleic acid and vitamin C on adjuvant arthritis. Journal of the American Podiatry Association, 75(5), 229-237.

Abstract: The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic topical activity of combined ascorbic acid, aloe extract, and RNA in hydrophilic cream were evaluated in this study. The results may provide an effective topical treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

Fujita, K., Suzuki, I., Ochiai, J., Shinpo, J., Inoue, S., and Saito, H. (1978). Specific reaction of Aloe extract with serum proteins of various animals. Experientia,34, 523-524.

Abstract: This report details a very interesting approach to explain the effectiveness of Aloe on healing wounds and being anti-inflammatory. They found that there were some biologically active proteins contained in Aloe and that these may be involved in the healing process.

Fujita, K., Teradaira, R., and Nagatsu, T. (1976). Bradykinase activity of Aloe extract. Biochemical Pharmacology, 25, 205.

Abstract: As pharmacological evidence for the anti-inflammatory action of aloe, we have found that aloe extract contains bradykinase activity.

Furta, K., and Teradaira, R. (n,d.). Bradykinase activity of Aloe extract. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen, 61-63.

Abstract: Technical report from Japanese source. The paper deals with the anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera and shows a very encouraging indication for reducing inflammation in wounds.

Habeeb, F., Stables, G., Bradbury, F., Nong, S., Cameron, P., Plevin, R., and Ferro, V. A. (2007). The inner gel component of Aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells. Methods, 42, 388-393. 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the inner leaf gel component of Aloe barbadensis Miller. A simple in vitro assay was designed to determine the effect of the inner gel on bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, namely TNF-α and IL-1β, from peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with Shigella flexneri or LPS. This report describes the suppression of both cytokines with a freeze-dried inner gel powder and a commercial health drink from the same source. Comparison was made with a human monocytic cell-line (THP-1 cells) and a similar trend in responses was demonstrated.

Jia, Qi. (n.d.). Research focuses on chromones in Aloe. Univera Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Abstract: Dr. Qi Jia of Univera Pharmaceuticals investigates the role chromones may play in the anti-inflammatory effects Aloe displays.

Kudalkar, M. D., Nayak, A., Bhat, K. S., and Nayak, R. N. (2014, January-March). Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study. AYU: Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 35(1), 85-89. 

Abstract: A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP- 9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline.

Obata, M., Ito, S., Beppu, H., Fujita, K., and Nagatsu, T. (n.d.). Mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-thermal burn action of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger. Fujita Health University, Japan, 19-28.

Abstract: Carboxypeptidase (Cpase) was partially purified from Kidachi aloe (Aloe Arborescens Mill. var natalensis Berger) by FPLC system, and was administered intravenously to female ICR mice with inflammation. The enzyme preparation revealed significant effects on alleviation of pain and inhibition of vascular permeability in abdominal region. It also revealed an anti-thermal burn action on rat's hind paws, when it was administered to female Wister rat intravenously.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, May). Aloe vera eases inflammation. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Preparations of Aloe Vera have long been used to ease inflammatory processes originating from a wide variety of triggering causes. This article sets out the nature of inflammation, how Aloe Vera works to influence it, and what clinical problems can be helped as a result.

Reuter, J., Jocher, A., Stump, J., Grossjohann, B., Franke, G., and Schempp, C. M. (2008). Investigation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe vera gel (97.5%) in the ultraviolet erythema test. Skin Pharmacol Physiology, 21, 106-110. 

Abstract: Aloe vera is a natural product that is frequently used in soothing skin care products such as after-sun lotions. In the present study we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of a highly concentrated A. vera gel in the UV erythema test in vivo. Methods: 40 volunteers with skin types II and III were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III monocenter study. Test areas on the back were irradiated with the 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose of UVB. Subsequently, the test areas were treated occlusively on 2 subsequent days with A. vera gel (97.5%), the positive controls (0.25% prednicarbate, 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel and 1% hydrocortisone cream) and a placebo gel. Erythema values were determined photometrically after 24 and 48 h. Results: A. vera gel (97.5%) significantly reduced UV-induced erythema after 48 h, being superior to 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel. In contrast, 1% hydrocortisone in cream was more efficient than A. vera gel. Conclusions: In this study after 48 h the A. vera gel (97.5%) displayed some anti-inflammatory effects superior to those of 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel. The A. vera gel tested here might be useful in the topical treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as UV-induced erythema.

Rishi, P., Rampuria, A., Tewari, R., and Koul, A. (2008). Phytomodulatory potentials of Aloe vera against salmonella OmpR-mediated inflammation. Phytotherapy Research, 22, 1075-1082. 

Abstract: Mediators released during inflammatory response play an essential role in eliminating microbes or microbial products. However, the uncontrolled release of cytotoxic substances characterized by extensive inflammation may adversely affect normal tissues. Under such conditions it is important to manage the hyperinflammation in order to change the clinical manifestations of the disease. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation by Aloe vera, a plant known to contain anti-inflammatory ingredients. It was observed that outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) extracted from the wild type strain of S. typhimurium caused inflammation of greater magnitude compared with the OMPs extracted from its mutant construct as evident from the oedema test as well as the hyperalgesic (flicking) response of the animals under experimental conditions. However, Aloe vera applied topically, administered intraperitoneally or in combination modulated the inflammatory response. The maximum effect was observed with the combined formulation indicating modulation at local as well as systemic levels. The results reveal that this modulation could be due to the potential of Aloe vera to decrease peroxidative damage via a decrease in the levels of monokines (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) and an increase in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, the presence of SOD in Aloe vera itself might be responsible for enhancing its levels in the macrophages. On the other hand, no significant change in the catalase activity was observed by Aloe vera treatment. The use of Aloe vera, therefore, seems to have a promising role in the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation.

Sarkar, D., Dutta, A., Das, M., Sarkar K., Mandal, C., and Chatterjee, M. (2005, November 1). Effect of Aloe vera on nitric oxide production by macrophages during inflammation. Indian Journal of Pharmacology.

Abstract: AVL possesses acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity, which is partly mediated by reduced production of NO, which in turn prevents the release of inflammatory mediators.

Tizard, I. (n.d.). Aloe-derived carbohydrates reduce inflammation by blocking neutrophil emigration mediated by certain beta integrins. Texas A&M University, Consultant for Carrington Laboratories.

Abstract: This abstract presented by Dr. Ian Tizard of Texas A&M University reveals the effects Aloe has on inflammation.

Vandana, K. R., Yalavarthi, P. R., Sundaresan, C. R., Sriramaneni, R. N., and Vadlamudi, H. C. (2014, June). In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel. Current Drug Discovery Technologies, 11(2), 162. 

Abstract: The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate “nimesulide: Aloe vera transemulgel” (NAE) and to carry out in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04%) was observed compared to CNG (44.72%) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4% inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6%). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4% drug content) compared to CNG (70.5% drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect.

Vazquez, B., Avila, G., Segura, D., and Escalante, B. (1996). Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 55, 69-75.

Abstract: We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory agents indomethacine and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids, and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type Δ5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have anti-inflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.

Zhong, J. S., Huanga, Y. Y., Zhang, T. H., Liu, Y. P., Ding, W. J., Wu, X. F., Xie, Z. Y., Luo, H. B., and Wan, J. Z. (2015). Natural phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors from the leaf skin of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Fitoterapia, 100, 68-74. 

Abstract: The ethanolic extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaf skin showed inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D), which is a therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new anthrones, 6ʹ-O-acetyl-aloin B (9)and 6ʹ-O-acetyl-aloin A (11), one new chromone, aloeresin K (8), together with thirteen known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS. All of the isolates were screened for their inhibitory activity against PDE4D using tritium-labeled adenosine 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic monophosphate (3H-cAMP) as substrate. Compounds 13 and 14 were identified as PDE4D inhibitors, with their IC50 values of 9.25 and 4.42 μM, respectively. These achievements can provide evidences for the use of A. barbadensis leaf skin as functional feed additives for anti-inflammatory purpose.

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