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Bibliography By Topic

DERMATOLOGIC USES (See also Burns, Skin, and Wound Healing)

Anshoo, G., Singh, S., Kulkarni, A., Pant, S., and Vijayaraghavan, R. (2005, March 1). Protective effect of Aloe vera L. Gel against sulphur mustard-induced systemic toxicity and skin lesions. (Research Paper). Indian Journal of Pharmacology.

Abstract: The study shows that percutaneous administration of Sulfur Mustard (SM) induces oxidative stress and oral administration of Aloe vera gel could only partially protect it. Topical application of Aloe vera gel may be beneficial for protecting the skin lesions induced by SM. The effect was marginal.

Babaee, N., Zabihi, E., Mohseni, S., and Moghadamnia, A. A. (2012, July). Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Dental Research Journal, 9(4), 381-385. 

Abstract: Background: Aphthous ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity with no known effective treatment so far, which could cause severe discomfort in patients. Aloe vera (A.V.) is a tropical plant with anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects, which could be of benefit in a diversity of wound healing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate topically administered A.V. gel on oral cavity minor aphthous healing. Materials and Methods: As a double-blind (case control) clinical trial, 40 patients with oral minor aphthous lesions were randomly allocated in either the case group (A.V. gel) or the control (placebo) group. The healing time (days after gel application), patient’s pain score; the lesion and its surrounding inflammation diameters were recorded for 2 weeks. The obtained results were analyzed by either “Fishers exact” or t-student test using SPSS software. Results: The mean (+SD) of patients’ age was 29.25 + 8.48 and 27.95 + 7.96 years in the control and A.V.-treated groups, respectively, which were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The duration of complete wound healing, pain score, wound size and inflammation zone diameter in the A.V.-treated group were significantly lower than the control group (P ≤ 0.05) on specific time points after treatment. Conclusion: It seems likely that A.V. 2% oral gel is not only effective in decreasing the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients’ pain score and wound size but also decreases the aphthous wound healing period.

Baruzzi, D'ssa M. C., and Rovesti, P. (1970). The epidermical action of Aloe vera L. juice. Given at IFSCC Meeting, Centro Internazionale Ricerche Biocosmetiche - Milano.

Abstract: We can attribute a good dermatologic and cosmetologic action to aloe’s juice, so setting this juice among the phytocosmetic protectives modern cosmetology has at its disposal.

Burger, A., Grubert, M., and Schuster, O. (n.d.). Aloe vera : Renascence of a traditional natural drug as a dermopharmaceutical. Skin care.

Abstract: Efficiency and tolerance of Aloe vera gel preparations in experimentally induced skin injuries.

Cho, S., Lee, S., Lee, M. J., Lee, D. H., Won, C. H., Kim, S. M., and Chung, J. H. (2009). Dietary Aloe vera supplementation improves facial wrinkles and elasticity and it increases the type I procollagen gene expression in human skin in vivo. Ann Dermatol (Seoul), 21(1), 6-11. 

Abstract: No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin. Objective: We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin. Methods: Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. Skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR. Results: After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p < 0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups. Conclusion: Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups.

Cole, H. N. (MD), & Chen, K. K. (MD). (1943, February). Aloe vera in oriental dermatology. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 47, 250.

Abstract: Brief history of oriental dermatological use of Aloe.

Crewe , J. E. (MD). (1937). The external use of Aloes. Minnesota Medicine, 20, 670-673.

Abstract: Aloe treatment for palmar eczema, pruritus vulva, external ulcers, poison ivy and burns.

Feily, A., and Namazi, M. R. (2009, Feb). Aloe vera in dermatology: A brief review. G Ital Dermatol Venereol, 114(a), 85-91.

Abstract: Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Flesch, P. (1959, January). Mucopolysaccharides in Human Epidermis. The Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, X(1), 154-159.

Abstract: This paper deals with a component of the human epidermis, the mucopolysaccharides. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that these compounds are probably essential for the synthesis of normal keratin. Certain types of hair loss may be due to disturbances in the hypothetical mucopolysaccharide-keratin metabolic chain.

Jones, K. (2008, February 26). Quenching free radicals with aloe vera. Inside cosmeceuticals, www.insidecosmeceuticals.com/articles/quenching-free-radicals-with-aloe-vera.html.

Abstract: Over the past two decades, skin care has advanced at a rate rivaling that of technology. Just as it used be enough for cell phones to simply make phone calls, it used to be enough for skin care products to simply cleanse, tone and moisturize. Those days are long gone. As baby boomers started showing the first signs of aging, they demanded more of their skin care products. They insisted on multi-tasking formulas that could reduce fine lines and wrinkles, firm sagging skin and make dull complexions lustrous again.

Kang, M. C., Kim, S. Y., Kim, Y. T., Kim, E. A., and Lee, S. H. (2014). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 99, 365-371. 

Abstract: The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes, including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications.

McIntosh, S. E., Opacic, M., Freer, L., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Cochran, A., Giesbrecht, G. G., McDevitt, M., Imray, C. H., Johnson, E. L., Dow, J., and Hackett, P. H. (2014). Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite: 2014 update. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 25, S43-S54,

Abstract: The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2011;22(2):156-166.

Meadows, T. P. (1980, November). Aloe as a humectant in new skin preparations. Cosmetics & Toiletries, 95, 51-56.

Abstract: Article presents a few of the types of products in which aloe gel may be used. Aloe gel may be used in any system in which moisturization or mildness is wanted. Alone or in conjunction with other materials for that purpose.

Raine, T. J., London, M. D., Goluch, L., Heggers, J. P., and Robson, M. C. (1980). Anti-prostaglandins and anti-thromboxanes for treatment of frostbite. American College of Surgeons 1980 Surgical Forum,XXXI, 557-559.

Abstract: A vital but unique study of frostbite testing on rabbit ears. Aloe vera and three other standard treatments for frostbite were used, and Aloe vera either matched or beat the others in every respect.

Reddy, K. K., Grossman, L., and Rogers, G. S. (2013, April). Common complementary and alternative therapies with potential use in dermatologic surgery: Risks and benefits. JAM Acad Dermatol, 68(4), e127-e135. 

Abstract: Commonly available complementary and alternative medicine therapies with potential use in the perioperative dermatologic surgery setting are reviewed, including reported beneficial and detrimental effects. Definitions, regulatory practices, and scientific sources of information are discussed. Improved knowledge and familiarity with relevant complementary and alternative medicine therapies promotes an improved dermatologic surgeon-patient relationship and may allow surgeons to capitalize on therapeutic actions and to mitigate complications.

Reuter, J., Jocher, A., Stump, J., Grossjohann, B., Franke, G., and Schempp, C. M. (2008). Investigation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe vera gel (97.5%) in the ultraviolet erythema test. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 21, 106-110. 

Abstract: Aloe vera is a natural product that is frequently used in soothing skin care products such as aftersun lotions. In the present study we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of a highly concentrated A. vera gel in the UV erythema test in vivo. Methods: 40 volunteers with skin types II and III were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III monocenter study. Test areas on the back were irradiated with the 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose of UVB. Subsequently, the test areas were treated occlusively on 2 subsequent days with A. vera gel (97.5%), the positive controls (0.25% prednicarbate, 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel and 1% hydrocortisone cream) and a placebo gel. Erythema values were determined photometrically after 24 and 48 h. Results: A. vera gel (97.5%) significantly reduced UV-induced erythema after 48 h, being superior to 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel. In contrast, 1% hydrocortisone in cream was more efficient than A. vera gel. Conclusions: In this study after 48 h the A. vera gel (97.5%) displayed some anti-inflammatory effects superior to those of 1% hydrocortisone in placebo gel. The A. vera gel tested here might be useful in the topical treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as UV-induced erythema.

Skripkin, U. K., and Sharapova, G. Y. (1963). An experiment of cream application with biostimulator juice of Aloe. Sources: Chair of Skin and Venereal Diseases (Professor M.M. Zheltakiv) of the II Moscow Medical Institute (N. I. Pirogova), 15/VI.

Abstract: In local application of biostimulating juice of aloe in cream form, favorable activity was noted particularly in people with moderately dry skin; along with improvement in dryness of the skin went the smoothing way of wrinkles, improved skin vitality and elasticity.

Steinberg, D. C. (1982, February). Mucopolysaccharides for cosmetics. Cosmetic Technology, 41-44.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the structure, formation, and role of mucopolysaccharides as well as the benefits of applying hydrolyzed mucopolysaccharides to the skin.

Syed, T. A., Ahmad, S. A., Hold, A. H., Ahmad, S. A., Ahmad, S. H., and Afzal, M. (1996, August). Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 1(4), 505-509.

Abstract: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of topical Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream to cure patients with psoriasis vulgaria. The findings of this study suggest that topically applied Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream is more effective than placebo, and has not shown toxic or any other objective side-effects. Therefore, the regimen can be considered a safe and alternative treatment to cure patients suffering from psoriasis.

Tri-K Industries, Inc. (n.d.) Aloe vera gel: Efficacy documentation via cell proliferation rate studies. Emerson, NJ: author.

Abstract: Article documents the wound and burn healing efficiency of Aloe vera. All the work is positive. . . . Aloe vera has been shown to be an effective agent.

West, D. P., and Fen, Y. (2003, February). Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Amerian Journal of Infection Control, 31, 40-42.

Abstract: An examination glove that delivers aloe vera (AV) gel to the gloved hand was studied in 30 adult females with bilateral occupational dry skin with or without irritant contact dermatitis (with or without erythema, fissures, and excoriations). All participants were factory assembly-line workers with repeated superficial skin trauma who attributed their dry, irritated, emollient-dependent skin to a common cause (occupational exposure). Participants were sequentially enrolled (after written informed consent, n = 29 evaluable participants) into an open, contralateral comparison study to evaluate efficacy of AV glove use 8 h/day to one hand versus no use to the opposite hand for 30 days, followed by 30 days rest, followed by 10 days of repeated use. Participant’s dorsal hands were documented by standardized photos at baseline, during, and at the end of study. Results: Unblinded investigator baseline assessment rated dry skin as mild to moderate (n = 27), or moderate to severe (n = 2). Mean time to noticeable improvement for the AV glove hand was 3.5 days (range: 2-6 days) whereas marked improvement was 10.4 days (range: 7-17 days) for the AV glove hand. No improvement was detected for nonglove hands. Blinded photo assessment was rated independently by dermatology research staff. End-of-study mean global assessment of AV glove hands versus nonglove hands was 1.3 for AV glove hand (0 = no change, 1 = good [10%-89% global improve-ment], 2 = marked improvement [90%-100% global improvement]) versus 0 for nonglove hand (P < .0001). Mean global end-of-study assessments by the participants = 2.0 for AV glove hand versus 0 for nonglove hand. Conclusion: Dry-coated AV gloves that provide for gradual delivery of AV gel to skin produced a uniformly positive outcome of improved skin integrity, decreased appearance of fine wrinkling, and decreased erythema in the management of occupational dry skin and irritant contact dermatitis.

(El) Zawahry, M., Hegazy, M. R., and Helal, M. (1973, January/February). Use of Aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. International Journal of Dermatology, 12, 68-73.

Abstract: Our report deals with Aloe's use locally in chronic leg ulcers, seborrhea, acne vulgaris, alopecia (hair fall), and alopecia areata.

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