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HEART DISEASE & CHOLESTEROL

Agarwal, O. P. (1985, August). Prevention of atheromatous heart disease. Angiology,36(8), 485-492.

Abstract: Five thousand patients of atheromatous heart disease, presented as angina pectoris, were studied over a period of five years. After adding the "Husk of Isabgol" and "Aloe vera: (an indigenous plant known as ghee-guar-ka-paththa) to the diet, a marked reduction in total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting and post-parandial blood sugar level in diabetic patients, total lipids and also increase in HDL were noted. Simultaneously the clinical profile of these patients showed reduction in the frequency of anginal attacks and gradually, the drugs, like verapamil, nifedipine, beta-blockers and nitrates, were tapered. The patients, most benefitted, were diabetics (without adding any anti-diabetic drug). The exact mechanism of the action of the above two substances is not known, but it appears that probably they act by their high fiber contents. Both of these substances need further evaluation. The most interesting aspect of the study was that no untoward side effect was noted and all the five thousand patients are surviving till date.

Kaithwas, G., Dubey, K., and Pillai, K. K. (2011, April). Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel on doxorubicin-induced myocardial oxidative stress and calcium overload in albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 49, 260-268. 

Abstract: Administration of a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX) (7.5 mg/kg, iv) produces cardiotoxicity, manifested biochemically by significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and tissue GSH along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK). In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by significant increase in lipid peroxides expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA, secondary indicator of lipid peroxidation), tissue catalase and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of A. Vera gel (100 and 200 mg/kg) orally for 10 days produced a significant protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum LDH, serum CPK, cardiac lipid peroxides, tissue catalase and tissue SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH. The results revealed that A. Vera gel produced a dose dependent protection against DOX induced cardiotoxicity.

Kaithwas, G., Singh, P., and Bhatia, D. (2014). Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Drug Chem Toxicolology, 37(2), 135-43. 

Abstract: In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

Kumar, M., Rakesh, S., Nagpal, R., Hemalatha, R., Ramakrishna, A., Sudarshan, V., Ramagoni, R., Shujauddin, M., Verma, V., Kumar, A., Tiwari, A., Singh, B., and Kumar, R. (2013). Probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Aloe vera gel improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutrition, 29, 574-579. 

Abstract: The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Aloe vera (AV) gel on lipid profiles in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were studied. Methods: Five treatment groups of rats (n = 7) were the fed experimental diets: a normal control diet, a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), HD + LGG, HD + AV gel, and HD + LGG + AV gel. Results: Supplementation with LGG decreased serum total cholesterol by 32%; however, in combination with AV, the decrease was 43%. The decreases in triacylglycerol levels in the HD + LGG, HD + AV, and HD + LGG + AV groups were 41%, 23% and 45%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein increased by 12% in the HD + LGG + AV group, whereas very low-density and low-density lipoprotein values decreased by 45% and 30%, respectively. The atherogenic index in the HD + LGG + AV group decreased to 2.45 from 4.77 in the HD + LGG group. Furthermore, fecal Lactobacillus species counts increased significantly when LGG was fed in combination with the AV gel. The oral administration of LGG fermented milk alone or in combination with the AV gel increased cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression) and absorption (low-density lipoprotein receptor expression), whereas cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase mRNA expression levels were lower in the HD + LGG and HD + LGG + AV groups compared with the control HD group. Conclusion: The combination of LGG and AV gel may have a therapeutic potential to decrease cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997). Aloe vera and the 4 A's: Arthritis, Atheroma, Angina, and Asthma. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: It has not been widely appreciated that Aloe vera can make a significant contribution to the treatment of these four common and serious complaints. These four illnesses make an enormous contribution to human misery. The evidence that Aloe can help comes in part from laboratory work and in part from human clinical studies. This evidence is assembled and reviewed in this newsletter.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, May). Aloe vera eases inflammation. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Preparations of Aloe Vera have long been used to ease inflammatory processes originating from a wide variety of triggering causes. This article sets out the nature of inflammation, how Aloe Vera works to influence it, and what clinical problems can be helped as a result.

Rajasekaran, S., Ravi, K., Sivagnanam, K., and Subramanian, S. (2006). Beneficial effects of aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33, 232-237. 

Abstract: The effect of diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism is well established. The association of hyperglycaemia with an altera-tion of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess lipid-lowering properties. The present study was designed to examine the potential antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, hepatic transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), plasma and tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. In addition, the decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein--cholesterol and increased plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein--and very low-density lipoprotein--cholesterol in diabetic rats were restored to near normal levels following treatment with the extract. The fatty acid composition of the liver and kidney was analysed by gas chromatography. The altered fatty acid composition in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats was restored following treatment with the extract. Thus, the results of the present study provide a scientific. rationale for the use of Aloe vera as an antidiabetic agent.

Yagi, A., Shibata, S., Nishioka, I., Iwadare, S., and Ishida, Y. (1982). Cardiac stimulant action of constituents of Aloe saponaria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71(7), 739-741.

Abstract: A highly potent cardiotonic substance, calcium isocitrate, was isolated from Aloe saponaria, using solvent partition, nonionic porous resin, and gel permeation chromatographies. Cardiac stimulant activity of synthesized steroisomers of calcium isocitrate was demonstrated in isolated guinea pig atria.

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