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Bibliography By Topic

MANUFACTURE & QUALITY CONTROL

Bowles, W. B. (n.d.). Medical aspects of Aloe. Melbourne, FL: Terry Laboratories.

Abstract: Present uses of aloe vera gel products, potential uses for aloe vera gel products, typical components found in the gel of aloe vera, harvesting, manufacturing and handling of aloe vera gel, new product development.

Lachenmeier, K., Kuepper, U., Musshoff, F., Madea, B., Reusch, H., and Lachenmeier, D. W. (2005). Quality control of aloe vera beverages. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural, and Food Chemistry, 4(4), 1033-1042. 

Abstract: Aloe vera beverages have to be produced exclusively using material of the plant species Aloe barbadensis Miller. Commercial material was reported to be frequently adulterated by artificial preservatives or to lack significant amounts of Aloe ingredients. HPTLC and HS-SPME/GC/MS methods to assess the authenticity of Aloe vera beverages were developed in this study, allowing to differentiate between authentic and adulterated products. In one case a commercially available Aloe vera juice could be proven to be exceedingly watered down. Parallel to the authenticity control, the HS-SPME method employed in this work allowed to detect the preservatives benzoic acid, sorbic acid and pHB-esters. In 17 of 24 (71%) currently available Aloe-food products an illegal addition of preservatives of up to 1000 mg/l could be ascertained. The presented analyses of Aloe vera beverages lead to the conclusion, that this product line does not give any cause for hygienic but rather legal concerns: controls have to be intensified to ensure sufficient product quality with regard to preservatives.

Leung, A. Y. (1985, September). Aloe vera update: A new form questions integrity of old. Drug and Cosmetics Industry, 42-46.

Abstract: Discusses the ability to now stabilize processed yet active Aloe so that more reliable tests may be done.

Mary, N. Y., Christensen, B. V., and Beal, J. L. (1956, April). A paper chromatographic study of Aloe, aloin and of cascara sagrada. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, XLV(4), 229-232.

Abstract: A qualitative and quantitative study of aloe, aloin, and cascara sagrada by the use of paper chromatography was undertaken. The results indicated the presence of aloe-emodin and anthranol in the free state and in glycosidal combination in all five of the drugs investigated. In addition, the Curacao aloe contained chrysophanic acid and the cascara sagrada contained chrysophanic acid and emodin in their free state and also in glycosidal combination.

Monroe, A., Schwartz, H., and Dorman, N. (1981, December 9). Clinical safety evaluation of sample: AVA Aloe vera gel. East Orange, NJ: A. FORL Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc.

Abstract: The purpose of the test was to determine the irritation and/or sensitization potential of the test product after repeated application under occlusion to the skin of human subjects.

Moroni, P. (1982, September). Aloe in cosmetic formulations. Cosmetic Technology.

Abstract: Discusses the uses of Aloe vera gel in various cosmetics including shampoo, hair rinses, and suntan preparations. The five major properties of the gel are anti-inflammatory, healing, moisturizing, substantivity to hair and skin, increasing skin respiration. Antibacterial properties of aloe gel were claimed in studies. Aloe also used in peptic ulcer therapy.

Pelley, R. P., Wang, Y. T., and Waller, T. A. (1993, May). Current status of quality control of Aloe barbadensis extracts. SÖFW-Journal, Jahrgang (year’s issue), 119, 255-268.

Abstract: In this article, we will examine the developments in analytical chemistry that are bringing us closer to the goal of benchmark tests for Aloe gel identity and quality: measurement of ions, high pressure liquid chromatography of PLC, and measurement of total polysaccharides.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997, May). The exudate compounds of Aloe and their likely benefits in the gel or whole leaf extract. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: The compounds in Aloe vera exudate are often regarded as undesirable on account of their strong laxative action. Hence measures are usually taken to minimize the levels of these compounds in Aloe vera gels and juices that are intended for general health purposes. Such products do not generally cause any unwanted laxative effects. However, do ny small traces of these compounds which remain in the products actually contribute positively to the biomedical activities of Aloe vera gels and juices? Do some individual members of this group of compounds perhaps lack any laxative effect at all and only contribute desirable, health-giving effects? These questions are discussed in this newsletter.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997, February). Aloe vera and its quality control: Checking upon the genuineness of products. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe is an extraordinarily beneficial plant remedy, but it has unfortunately been subject to misleading statements on product labels and in promotional literature. Dilution with water and adulteration with cheap additives have been common. This newsletter examines this extremely important aspect of Aloe.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997). Aloe vera and its quality control: Checking upon the genuineness of products. Positive Health.

Abstract: The consumer can come to realise that some preservatives are needed, otherwise the liquid Aloe vera extract cannot possibly be stabilised for distribution and marketing. This does not apply to freeze-dried aloe vera powder, like that found in Desert Harvest products.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, November). The crucial importance of correct processing of Aloe vera. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: The all-important biomedical activities of aloe juices and extracts depend critically upon applying strict rules of processing and handling. These determine whether or not the labile biochemicals in the living plant are successfully stabilized during manufacture and, subsequently, during distribution and storage.

Wright, R. (2005, May 1). Inside Aloe: Using Aloe in nutraceutical applications seems like a natural progression for the ingredient, but Aloe makers must resolve some challenges before fully developing this market. Nutraceuticals World.

Abstract: Predicts more internal use of Aloe vera in the future and also calls for more research, education and standardization.

Yagi, A., Makino, K., Nishioka, I., and Kuchino, Y. (1977). Aloe mannan, polysaccharide, from Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Planta Medica,31, 17-20.

Abstract: A main polysaccharide (aloe mannan) isolated from the fresh leaf pulp of Aloe arborescens Mill. Var. natalensis Berger in a pure state was proved to be a partially acetylated βa-D-mannan. The molecular weight of aloe mannan was calculated to be approximately 15,000 by equilibrium ultracentrifugation. An inhibiting effect of aloe mannan was tested against the implanted sarcoma-180.

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