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Whole-Leaf Aloe Vera

Bibliography By Topic

(See also Burns, Dermatologic Uses, and Radiation)

Ahmadi, A. (2012, August). Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine, 18(8), 635-640.

Abstract: In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and anti-inflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immuno-modulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

Chithra, P., Sajithlal, G.B., and Chandrakasan, Gowri. (1998, January). Influence of Aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,59(3), 179-186.

Abstract: It was observed that Aloe vera increased the collagen content of the granulation tissue, as well as its degree of cross linking as seen by increased aldehyde and decreased acid solubility. The group consuming Aloe vera indicated enhanced levels of type III collagen.

Davis, R. H., Di Donato, J. J., Hartman, G. M., and Haas, R.C. (1992). Mannose-6-phosphate: Anti-inflammatory and activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. Submitted for 1993 William J. Stickle Award.

Abstract: This study attempts to define the role of the two major sugar constituents in the Aloe plant, mannose and glucose. We analyzed these sugars in the phosphorylated form. The significance of this study lies in the ability of the phosphorylated sugars to fit the growth factor receptors on the surface of the fibroblast.

Davis, R. H., Kabbani, J. M, and Maro, N. P. (1987, April). Aloe vera and wound healing. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 77(4), 165-169.

Abstract: The authors present a study of the wound healing effects of Aloe vera. Special emphasis is given to combined RNA and vitamin C with Aloe because of their effectiveness against arthritis. Consideration is given to anthraquinones because their influence is not clearly understood. As a result of the preliminary findings in the study, the authors recommend Aloe for the treatment of wounds.

Davis, R. H., Leitner, M. G., Russo, J. M., and Byrne, M. E. (1989, November). Wound healing: Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 79(11), 559-562.

Abstract: The influence of Aloe vera, orally and topically, on wound healing was studied. These data suggest that A. vera is effective by both oral and topical routes of administration.

Farkas, A. (1963). Topical medicament including polyuronide derived from Aloe. Chemical Abstracts, 60, 378g-379a. Patent on one of the active ingredients of Aloe vera, U.S. Patent No. 3,103,466, received on September 10, 1963. Claim was filed on December 23, 1954.

Abstract: The product, while quickly relieving pain, particularly from burns, appears thereby to have an analgesic and anesthetic effect; particularly in the type of healing rapidly promoted by the composition, it appears to have a detoxifying effect that may be the results of the reducing action inherent in the polyuronide without causing irritation, because burns, even second and third degree burns, become healed unusually rapidly, and the skin re-forms with rapid granulating, without scab formation.

Feily, A., and Namazi, M. R. (2009, Feb). Aloe vera in dermatology: A brief review. G Ital Dermatol Venereol, 114(a), 85-91.

Abstract: Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Fox, T. R. (1990, December). Aloe vera: Revered, mysterious healer. Health Foods Business, 45ff.

Abstract: Part of a Consumer Education Series. Discusses the ability to quickly and completely heal skin tissue.

Fujita, K., Suzuki, I., Ochiai, J., Shinpo, J., Inoue, S., and Saito, H. (1978). Specific reaction of Aloe extract with serum proteins of various animals. Experientia,34, 523-524.

Abstract: This report details a very interesting approach to explain the effectiveness of Aloe on healing wounds and being anti-inflammatory. They found that there were some biologically active proteins contained in Aloe and that these may be involved in the healing process.

Furta, K., and Teradaira, R. (n.d.). Bradykinase activity of Aloe extract. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen, 61-63.

Abstract: Technical report from Japanese source. The paper deals with the anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera and shows a very encouraging indication for reducing inflammation in wounds.

Goff, S., and Levenstein, I. (1964). Measuring the effects of topical preparations upon the healing of skin wounds. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 15, 509-518.

Abstract: Under controlled conditions, with the mouse as the experimental animal, it has been shown that the tensile strength of a standardized skin wound increased as the wound healed. The effects of several preparations applied topically to the standard wound were demonstrated by tensile strength measurements.

Gupta, B., Agarwal, R., and Alam, M. S. (2014). Antimicrobial and release study of drug loaded PVA/PEO/CMC wound dressings. J Mater Sci: Mater Med, 25, 1613-1622. 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop PVA/PEO/CMC/aloe vera (PPCAV) and PVA/PEO/CMC/curcumin (PPCCu) dressings with nonwoven polyester fabric as the support layer via freeze-drying (FD) approach. Tetracycline hydrochloride drug (TC) was loaded along with curcumin and aloe vera on these dressings. The morphology of the dressings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), in vitro drug release and anti-microbial nature were analyzed to assess the applicability of these freeze-dried membranes as wound dressing materials. The results show that these dressings made from PPCAVTC and PPCCuTC were highly porous with three-dimensional interconnected porous morphology. The cumulative release of drug from the dressings increases with increasing immersion time and continued up to 24 h, after that it gets leveled off. These dressings evidenced wonderful antimicrobial nature in vitro. These dressings were found to have more than 900 % PBS uptake, WVTR was found to be in the range 2,000-2,500 gm-2 day-1. These dressings possess many characteristics desirable in an ideal wound dressing material.

Ivy Research. (1978, October-December). Wound Healing Assay, Ivy Research Protocol #3791.

Abstract: To determine whether the materials tested interfere or enhance the healing process of superficial dermal wounds.

Miller, A. L. (2003, November 1). Nutritional support for wound healing. Alternative Medicine Review.

Abstract: Discusses wound healing with nutritionals including Aloe vera. Includes a large list of references.

Moore, T. E. (n.d.). Aloe vera: Its potential use in wound healing and disease control in oral conditions.  

Abstract: Aloe Vera has been shown to enhance defense mechanisms, and it has a variety of components to help combat periodontal disease and other oral conditions. As a periodontist utilizing aloe vera in various consistencies for the last 14 years with over 6,000 documented patients who have been treated with applications, I’ve observed remarkable healing, reduced edema, and pain control.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997, January). Aloe vera and sports injuries. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera eases, through its anti-inflammatory and healing effects, a wide variety of sports injuries and troubles, including swelling and pain in joints, soreness of muscles, tendonitis, bursitis, strains, sprains, bruises, including bone bruises, cramps, skin irritation (shoulder-pad irritation and bra burn), fungal infections, turf burns, blisters, itching, and sunburn. In the less-frequent conditions of injury that involve deep trauma and in which surgery may have to be used, Aloe vera also soothes inflammation, eases pain, and promotes repair of the injury.

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. (2004, July 27). Aloe fluid aids survival from blood loss. United Press International.

Abstract: A resuscitation fluid from Aloe vera might save the lives of patients suffering massive blood loss caused by trauma.

Republic Hospital, Baturni, Russia. (1960). Preserved Aloe juice as hemostatic agent following tonsillectomy. Vestn. Oto-tino-laring,3, 99.

Abstract: A good hemostatic effect is noted, followed by fairly rapid healing of the tonsillary niches.

Roberts, D. B., and Travis, E. L. (1995). Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., 32:4, 1047-1052.

Abstract: To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and © when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Methods and Materials: Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. To determine timing of application for best effect, gel was applied beginning on day -7, 0, or +7 relative to the day of irradiation (day 0) and continuing for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks. The right inner thigh of each mouse was scored on a scale of 0 to 3.5 for severity of radiation reaction from the seventh to the 35th day after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logic analysis and ED50 values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. Results: The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED50 values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED50 values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1week after irradiation. Conclusion: Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation.

Robson, M. C., Jellema, A., Heggers, J. P., and Hagstrom, W. J. (1980, March 27-29). Care of the healed wound: A prospective randomized study. Twelfth Annual Meeting Report, American Burn Association, San Antonio, Texas, 94-95.

Abstract: Clinical study of Aloe being used on humans, but only after the burn's wounds had completed the first stages of healing and then Aloe was tested in the prevention of infection in the treatment of new scars. In this case, Aloe was as good as penicillin, thus also enhancing healing and reducing complications. This is a very favorable comparison, especially when the negative side effects penicillin sometimes produces are taken into consideration.

Sathyanarayana, A. B., and Chattannavar, G. (2012). Efficacy of fresh Aloe vera gel against multi-drug resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers. Australasian Medical Journal, 5(6), 305-309. 

Abstract: Infected leg ulcers are major health problems resulting in morbidity and disability and are usually chronic and refractory to antimicrobial treatment. Aims: The present study is aimed at determining the bacteria involved in leg ulcers and their resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics as well as to determine whether Aloe Vera has antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant organisms and promotes wound healing. Method: A total of 30 cases with leg ulcers infected with multi-drug resistant organisms were treated with topical aloe vera gel and 30 age  and sex-matched controls were treated with topical antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity was done from the wounds on alternate days and the ulcer was clinically and microbiologically assessed after 10 days. The results were compiled and statistically analysed. Results: Cultures of the study  group who were using aloe vera dressings showed no growth by the fifth day in 10 (33.3%) cases, seventh day in another 16 (53.3%) and ninth day in two of the remaining four cases (6.7%) while in two (6.7%) cases there was no decrease in the bacterial count. This means that of the 30 cases, 28 showed no growth by the end of 11 days while two cases showed no decrease in bacterial count. Growth of bacteria in study group decreased from 100% (30 cases) to 6.7% (2 cases) by day 11 with  P<0.001. Cultures of the control group did not show any decrease in the bacterial growth by day 11. Conclusion: Aloe vera gel preparation is cheap and was effective even against multi-drug resistant organisms as compared to the routinely used topical anti-microbial agents.

Shermetov, S. G., and Usikov, V. N. (n.d.). Influence of subcutaneous injections of Aloe extract upon the healing of bone fractures. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen, 112-113.

Abstract: Biostimulants, especially aloe extract, that are liable to potentiate the physiological functions of the organism, contribute to mobilization of calcium and inorganic phosphorus from the mineral depot into the blood and to the fractured bone. Aloe extract is found to have reduced the consolidation terms of fractures by 20-25 days.

Smith, S. Hydrogel dressings offer advancements in wound healing. Irving, TX: Carrington Laboratories.

Abstract: This abstract from Dr. Sheri Smith of Carrington Laboratories discusses the use of hydrogel dressings in wound care.

Tabandeh, M. R., Oryan, A., and Mohammadalipour, A. (2014). Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 65, 424-430.

Abstract: Polysaccharides are the main macromolecules of Aloe vera gel but no data about their effect on extra-cellular matrix (ECM) elements are available. Here, mannose rich Aloe vera polysaccharides (AVP) with molecular weight between 50 and 250 kDa were isolated and characterized. Open cutaneous wounds on the back of 45 rats (control and treated) were daily treated with 25 mg (n = 15) and 50 mg (n = 15) AVP for 30 days. The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression were analyzed using real time PCR. The levels of n-acetyl glucosamine (NAGA), n-acetyl galactosamine (NAGLA) and collagen contents were also mea-sured using standard biochemical methods. Faster wound closure was observed at day 15 post wounding in AVP treated animals in comparison with untreated group. At day 10 post wounding, AVP inhibited MMP-3 gene expression, while afterwards MMP-3 gene expression was upregulated. AVP enhanced TIMP-2 gene expression, collagen, NAGLA and NAGA synthesis in relation to untreated wounds. Our results suggest that AVP has positive effects on the regulation of ECM factor synthesis, which open up new perspectives for the wound repair activity of Aloe vera polysaccharide at molecular level.

Unknown. (1998, July). How Aloe heals. Nutrition Science News.

Abstract: The authors speculate that aloe gel might accelerate wound healing by lowering blood glucose levels (shown to improve wound healing in diabetics) or by stimulating the function of fibroblasts, the cells that make collagen.

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