Dentistry - Bibliography by Topic
Ahmadi, A. (2012, August). Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine, 18(8), 635-640.
Abstract: In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and anti-inflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immuno-modulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.
Bazvand, L., Aminozarbian, M. G, Farhad, A., Noormohammadi, H., Hasheminia, S. M., and Mobasherizadeh, S. (2014, July). Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture, chlorhexidine gel, and two natural materials Propolis and Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex vivo study. Dental Research Journal, 11(4), 469-475.
Abstract: The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of triantibiotic paste, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis in deep dentin. Ninety fresh extracted single-rooted teeth were used in a dentin block model. Seventy-five teeth were infected with E. faecalis and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15). Experimental groups were treated with triantibiotic mixture with distilled water, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, 70% ethanol + Propolis and Aloe vera. Fifteen teeth treated with distilled water as the positive control and 15 samples, free of bacterial contamination, were considered as the negative control. Gates-Glidden drill #4 was used for removal of surface dentin and Gates-Glidden drill #5 was used to collect samples of deep dentin. The samples were prepared and colony-forming units were counted. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: Triantibiotic mixture group exhibited the least bacterial growth. However, the rate of bacterial growth showed no significant differences between chlorhexidine and Propolis groups (P > 0.05). Aloe vera had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, but in comparison with other medicaments, it was less effective (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This experimental study showed that triantibiotic mixture, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aleo vera were relatively effective against E. faecalis. All the intracanal medicements had similar effects on E. faecalis in deep dentin except for Aloe vera.
Abstract: Periodontosis treated with extract of Aloe. (Also reference to treatment of cataracts and hearing impairment).
Bhalang, K., Thunyakitpisal, P., and Rungsirisatean, N. (2013). Acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from aloe vera, is effective in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(5), 429-434.
Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the safety and effectiveness of acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera, in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration. Design: A skin patch test was performed on 100 healthy subjects, and 0.5% acemannan in Carbopol 934P NF (Lubrizol Corporation, USA) was applied to the oral mucosa of the lower lip of 50 healthy participants 3 times/day for 7 days. Oral examinations and blood tests measuring liver and kidney function were performed prior to, and following, 7 days of application to assess the side-effects of acemannan when used on oral mucosa. Another 180 subjects with recurrent aphthous ulceration randomly received one of three treatments: 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (HOE Pharmaceuticals, Malaysia), 0.5% acemannan in Carbopol 934P NF, or pure Carbopol 934P NF. Medications were applied to the ulcers 3 times/day for 7 days. Measurements of ulcer size and patient satisfaction ratings were performed on days 2, 5, and 7. Pain ratings were recorded daily. Results: No subjects exhibited allergic reactions or side effects to acemannan. There were no significant differences between the blood test values before and after 7 days of acemannan application. The effectiveness of acemannan in reducing ulcer size and pain was superior to that of control, but inferior to that of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide. Patients were mostly satisfied with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide and acemannan treatment. Conclusions: Acemannan can be used for the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration in patients who wish to avoid the use of steroid medication, although the effectiveness was not comparable to that of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide.
Boonyagul, S., Banlunara, W., Sangvanich, P., and Thunyakitpisal, P. (2014). Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology, 102, 310-317.
Abstract: Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [3H] thymidine incor-poration assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blot-ting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization. In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.
Abstract: Use of Aloe in dentistry.
Chantarawaratit, P., Sangvanich, P., Banlunara, W., Soontornvipart, K., and Thunyakitpisal, P. (2014). Acemannan sponges stimulate alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration in a canine class II furcation defect model. Journal of Periodontal Research, 49, 164-178.
Abstract: Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease, found worldwide, causing the destruction of the periodontium. The periodontium is a complex structure composed of both soft and hard tissues, thus an agent applied to regenerate the periodontium must be able to stimulate periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone regeneration. Recent studies demonstrated that acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, stimulated both soft and hard tissue healing. This study investigated effect of acemannan as a bioactive molecule and scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration.
Ehsani, M., Marashi, M. A., Zabihi, E., Issazadeh, M., and Khafri, S. (2013, Summer). A comparison between antibacterial activity of propolis and aloe vera on enterococcus faecalis (an in vitro study). Int J Mol Cell Med, 2(3), 110-117.
Abstract: Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment. We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S. aureus and S. mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.
Gasau-zade, A. I., and Ali-zade, R. A. (n.d.). On application of Aloe extract with Novocain in complex therapy of periodontosis (amphodontosis). In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen.
Abstract: Discusses application of Aloe extract with Novocain in treating periodontosis.
Kudalkar, M. D., Nayak, A., Bhat, K. S., and Nayak, R. N. (2014, Jan-Mar). Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study. AYU: Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 35(1), 85-89.
Abstract: A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline.
Kumar, G. R., Devanand, G., John, B. D., Ankit, Y., Khursheed, O., and Sumit, M. (2014, April). Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4-day plaque re-growth model: Randomized control trial. Ethiop J Health Science, 24(2), 139-144.
Abstract: Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). Material and Methods: A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100): chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. Results: The results showed that Aloe vera mouth rinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.
Abstract: Treatment of periodontosis with aloes extract produced positive results, both direct and remote.
Lopez-Jornet, P., Camacho-Alonso, F., and Molino-Pagan, D. (2013). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical evaluation of Aloe vera Barbadensis, applied in combination with a tongue protector to treat burning mouth syndrome. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, 42, 295-301.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of aloe vera (AV) applied in combination with a tongue protector, comparing this with a placebo. Methods: A total of 75 patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) were divided into three groups randomly: Group I (tongue protector three times a day), Group II (tongue protector and 0.5 ml AV at 70% three times a day) and Group III (tongue protector and 0.5 ml placebo three times a day). Symptoms were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), while patient psychological profiles were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety-Depression scale and their quality of life using the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49). Treatment continued for 3 months. Results: Visual analogue scale pain values improved for all three study groups but without statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.210). Regarding quality of life, no significant differences were found between groups with the exception of the OHIP-49 score for handicap. The overall clinical improvement was greater for Group II, with a difference almost reaching significance. Conclusions: The concomitant prescription of tongue protector and AV is effective for treating patients with BMS.
Mangelson, M. L., Carson, R. E., Uydea, G. T., Moore, T. E., and Cucchiara, Andrew J. (n.d.). Effects of Aloe vera irrigation on pathogenic microorganisms associated with moderate to advanced adult periodontitis. University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry, Graduate Periodontics Program.
Abstract: Controlled in vivo human study of the effects of Aloe vera on pathogenic microorganisms associated with adult periodontitis.
Abstract: Aloe vera has been shown to enhance defense mechanisms, and it has a variety of components to help combat periodontal disease and other oral conditions. As a periodontist utilizing aloe vera in various consistencies for the last 14 years with over 6,000 documented patients who have been treated with applications, I’ve observed remarkable healing, reduced edema, and pain control.
Abstract: Aloe therapy in complex treatment of periodontosis proves to be efficacious in the stage I and II of the disease. The blood serum calcium content in periodontosis is abnormally high, being 11.79 mg % on the average. Aloe extract injections in Periodontosis normalize disturbed calcium metabolism.
Pareek, S., Nagaraj, A., Sharma, P., Atri, M., and Walia, S., Naidu, S., and Yousuf, A. (2013). Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: In vitro study. International Journal of Dentistry, 1-6.
Abstract: Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5%sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used.SPSS16. Results: There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.
Payne, J. M., III. (1970, May). Tissue response to Aloe vera gel following periodontal surgery. Thesis submitted to Faculty of Baylor University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science.
Abstract: Aloe vera was used as a mouthwash in two cases in order to give some indication of the use of greater quantities of the gel.
Abstract: The uses of Aloe vera in dentistry are multiple. It is extremely helpful in the treatment of gun disease; it reduces the bleeding of the gums; it is powerfully antiseptic in gum pockets and its antifungal properties help greatly in the problem of denture stomatitis. It protects and promotes healing.
Abstract: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.
Abstract: Aloe vera polysaccharides have traditionally been used in Asian cultures as medicinal plants to enhance immunity and reduce oxidative injury. The current investigation was conducted to examine the effects of A. vera polysaccharides on various in vivo parameters of innate immunity and antioxidant enzymes activities in oral ulcer animals. Forty wistar rats were randomly divided into the following 1 control group and 3 experimental groups (each group contained 10 rats). Rats in experimental groups were orally fed by A. vera polysaccharides. Rats in control group were orally fed by same volume of saline. The results showed that A. vera polysaccharides enhanced immunity activity and exerted antioxidant effects compared with vehicle controls. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that A. vera polysaccharides are effective in enhancing innate immunity and suppressing oxidative injury in oral ulcer animals.