Digestive System - Bibliography by Topic
Altincik, A., Sonmez, F., Yenisey, C., Duman, S., Can, A., Akev, N., Kirdar, S., and Sezak, M. (2015, January 30). Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 46(3), 22-327.
Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Results: Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. Conclusion: It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.
Asadi-Shahmirzadi, A., Mozaffari, S., Sanei, Y., Baeeri, M., Hajiaghaee, R., Monsef-Esfahani, H.R., and Abdollahi, M. (2012, December 21). Benefit of Aloe vera and Matricaria recutita mixture in rat irritable bowel syndrome: Combination of antioxidant and spasmolytic effects. Chin J Integr Med.
Abstract: To evaluate the beneficial effects of a mixture of Aloe vera (AV) and Matricaria recutita (German chamomile, GC) in an experimental model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Abstract: Author is convinced that there is enough evidence available now to suggest that the properties of this amazing plant should be properly tested, to prove whether or not there is just a myth or real medicine here.
Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of oral Aloe vera juice supplementation on gastric pH, stool specific gravity, protein digestion/absorption, and stool microbiology. Results indicate that supplemental oral Aloe vera juice is well tolerated by most individuals and has favorable effects upon a number of gastrointestinal parameters. A discussion of the potential role of Aloe vera juice on inflammatory bowel disorders based upon this work is presented.
Abstract: There can be little doubt that the properties ascribed to Aloe vera gel should be therapeutically helpful in the management of peptic ulcer; but whether or not these properties occasion correction of the ulcer-producing process, it is unmistakable that Aloe vera gel, through whatever mechanism, is clinically beneficial in the treatment of this very important disease.
Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Di Campli, E., Genovese, S., Locatelli, M., and Di Giulio, M. (2014). In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 59, 43-48.
Abstract: Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a herbal remedy widely used for a variety of illnesses; A. vera leaf extracts have been promoted for detoxification, cure constipation, help flush out toxins and wastes from the body, promote digestion and are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer for cytoprotective action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of A. vera inner gel against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in Abruzzo region, Italy. The inner gel of leaves of a 5-year-old plant of A. vera was extracted, homogenized and tested from 800 to 1.56 mg ml-1 against 14 clinical strains and one reference strain of H. pylori using the broth microdilution methodology. Furthermore, the sample of A. vera was investigated for the chemical fingerprint of anthraquinones. The inhibitory concentrations of A. vera inner gel were similar to the bactericidal ones, with values ranging from 6.25 to 800 mg ml-1. Fifty percent of the detected strains, independently of their susceptibility profile, were inhibited in their growth at 100 mg ml-1. Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against H. pylori and, therefore, in combination with antibiotics, could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of the infection of H. pylori, especially in cases of multi-resistance.
Chikalo, I., and Bolovyeve, V. (n.d.). The small intestine’s function effected by Aloe extract. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data. Moscow, USSR: Medexport, Ukrainian SSR Research Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy.
Abstract: Aloe extract may be recommended for stimulating the secretory function of the small intestine.
Cui, Y., Ye, Q., Wang, H., Li, Y., Yao, W., and Qian, H. (2013, November 23). Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe vera polysaccharides against chronic alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Sci Food Agric, 94, 1764-1771.
Abstract: Aloe vera polysaccharides are reported to exhibit multiple biological effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and immune enhancement. However, their influence on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the protective effect of extracted A. vera polysaccharides (AVGP) against ALD in a chronic alcohol-feeding mouse model and investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Results: Supplementation of AVGP significantly attenuated the levels of serum aminotransferases, lipids and hepatic TG and ameliorated histopathological alterations in the model of ALD. Interestingly, AVGP markedly up-regulated hepatic expression of lipolytic genes (AMPK-α2 and PPAR-α) but had no effect on lipogenic gene expression. AVGP diminished alcohol-dependent oxidative stress partly through a decrease in MDA and increase in GSH and SOD. Alcohol-induced inflammation was also mitigated by AVGP treatment via significant reduction in LPS and TNF-α, down-regulation of TLR-4 and MyD88 and up-regulation of IκB-α. Conclusion: This study clearly showed that AVGP exerts a potent protective effect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. Its hepato-protective effect appears to be associated with its antioxidant capacity and its ability to accelerate lipolysis and inhibit inflammatory response. The results indicate that AVGP could be considered as a potent food supplement in the prevention of ALD.
Eamlamnam, K., Patumraj, S., Visedopas, N., and Thong-Ngam, D. (2006, April 7). Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12(13), 2034-2039.
Abstract: To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric micro-circulatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing. Methods: Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n = 48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as control group, group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4 as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera . The rats from each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence, TNF-α and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer by 20% acetic acid. Results: On day 1 after induction of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the control group. The level of TNF-α was elevated and the level of IL-10 was reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera , leukocyte adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule. The level of IL-10 was elevated, but the level of TNF-α had no significant difference. On day 8, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-α were still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level. The level of IL-10 was still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore, histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Conclusion: Administration of 20% acetic acid can induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level and reduce IL-10 level. Aloe vera treatment can reduce leukocyte adherence and TNF-α level, elevate IL-10 level and promote gastric ulcer healing.
Abstract: Questions and answers regarding irritable bowel syndrome and other gastric diseases.
Abstract: Although previous studies have shown that Aloe vera extracts have anti-inflammatory activity, this is the first study to provide scientific support for Aloe vera as a treatment for ulcerative colitis.
Abstract: A drink made from the Aloe vera plant is helping patients control the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, a disease that affects the bowels.
Abstract: Aloe vera is said to be highly effective at relieving such conditions as irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, ulcers and hiatus hernia. Article cautions women who are pregnant because of the possible aloin content in Aloe vera juice. [Note that Desert Harvest aloe vera products do not contain aloin or any of the other anthraquinones that cause problem during pregnancy.]
Abstract: Aloe vera appears to be an all-around herbal cure for many ailments. These range from burns, insect bites and rashes to medical applications as eye drops, toothpaste and anti-inflammatory agents. Although scientific proof of and research into all of Aloe’s claims remain in their early stages, evidence of Aloe vera’s healing qualities is mounting. A specific section is written concerning Leaky Gut Syndrome.
Keshavarzi, Z., Rezapour, T. M., Vatanchian, M., Hesari, M. Z., Haghighi, H. N., Izanlu, M., Sabaghian, M., and Shahveisi, K. (2014, March-April). The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in male rats. Avicenna J Phytomed, 4(2), 137-143.
Abstract: Gut-brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output.
Langhorst, J., Wulfert, H., Lauche, R., Klose, P., Cramer, H., Dobos, G. J., and Korzenik, J. A. (2015). Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, 86-106.
Abstract: We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn’s disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies. Methods: A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, e.g., aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, i.e., plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD. Conclusions: Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary.
Abstract: Trials indicate that Aloe Vera heals peptic ulcers, controls intestinal secretions to normal levels, influences the bowel flora, controls gastric and intestinal pH, improves the functioning of the pancreas, and limits adverse bacteria action in the colon, reducing putrefaction.
Prabjone, R., Thong-Ngam D., Wisedopas, N., Chatsuwan, T., and Patumraj, S. (2006). Anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the gastric micro-circulation of Helicobacter pylori-infected rats. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 35, 359-366.
Abstract: This research was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium in the gastric micro-circulation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected rats. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control, H. pylori-infected, and A. vera-treated group (200 mg/kg b.w., twice daily). H. pylori-inoculation was induced in the rats by the administration of H. pylori solution. Intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy was used to examine leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules on the posterior surface of stomach area on different periods after administration of A. vera. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level was measured in blood collected at the end of experiment by using ELISA technique. The results showed that in H. pylori-infected group on day 8, the leukocyte adhesion was 13.40 + 1.00 cells/100 µm vessel length and the TNF-α was 76.76 + 23.18 pg/ml, which increased significantly (p < 0.05), compared with the control group (leukocyte adhesion control = 2.54 + 0.6 cells/100 µm vessel length and TNF-α control = 9.92 + 2.62 pg/ml). Treatment with A. vera reduced the leukocyte adhesion (5.5 + 0.5 cells/100 µm vessel length), and TNF-α (26.31 + 6.38 pg/ml) significantly (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. pylori enhanced leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the posterior stomach area markedly. This enhancement in leukocyte-endothelium interaction could be improved by the treatment of A. vera, associated with reduction in TNF-α level.
Ranade, A. N., Wankhede, S. S., Ranpise, N. S., and Mundada, M. S. (2012, December). Development of bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers. AAPS PharmSciTech, 13(4), 1518-1523.
Abstract: Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a “triple therapy” consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better anti-ulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer. A. vera gel powder is used for its cytoprotective action. Bilayer floating tablets were prepared by applying direct compression technique. The proportion of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time with good matrix integrity and total floating time. Polymer concentration was adjusted to get the maximum release in 8 h. The formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and HPMC K100M in a ratio of 85:15 along with 1:4 ratio of effervescent agents was found to give floating lag time of less than 1 min with total floating time of more than 8 h and 97.0% drug release in 8 h. In vivo study in rats meets the requirement of antiulcer activity for bilayer tablet in comparison to single amoxicillin as standard.
Sadiq, Y., Abdulkarim, A., and Mshelia, D. (2004). The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93, 33-37.
Abstract: The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.
Abstract: Aloe is now widely used to help a variety of conditions of the digestive tract. Aloe vera may be taken both internally as a juice or as a gel applied to the painful joint.
Abstract: A gel made from the herb aloe vera may help to treat and prevent stomach and intestinal ulcers. Article also discusses Aloe vera trials in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.
Abstract: Aloe vera in the treatment of ulcers and IBS.
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed.
Abstract: The natural remedy Aloe vera could soon be prescribed by general practitioners for irritable bowel syndrome.
Werawatganon, D., Linlawan, S., Thanapirom, K., Somanawat, K., Klaikeaw, N., Rerknimitr, R., and Siriviriyakul, P. (2014). An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 229.
Abstract: An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods: Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results: In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 + 533.86 vs 85.28 + 28.27 U/L, 3.60 + 1.50 vs 1.38 + 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 + 1.10 vs 1.84 + 1.29%, and 13.26 + 0.90 vs 2.54 + 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 + 0.30 vs 11.65 + 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 + 495.45 vs 1210.50 + 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 + 0.64 vs 3.60 + 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 + 1.25 vs 12.18 + 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 + 0.94 vs 13.26 + 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 + 0.20 vs 5.98 + 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P= 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions: APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP-induced hepatitis through the improvement of liver histopathology by decreased oxidative stress, reduced liver injury, and restored hepatic GSH.
Abstract: The Ulcerative Colitis (UC) belongs to the group of diseases called Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) which is characterized by a chronic ulceration of the colon. The conventional treatment can have adverse effects and does not guarantee effectiveness in some patients requiring aggressive therapy using adjuvant therapy Aloe vera has been shown to have a beneficial effect in different disease, and have an anti-inflammatory effect in UC patients. Objective: Measuring the effect of the consumption of 200 ml of aloe vera gel daily for a period of three months, in the degree of inflammation in patients with mild UC based on Mayo scale and quantification of IL-6 in the colonic mucosa.