General Articles - Bibliography by Topic

Arab, A. (2003, March 5). Health-Senegal: An ancient herbal medicine makes a comeback. Inter Press Service English News Wire.

Abstract: Reports on use and effect of Aloe vera by Senegalese.

Aryayev, N. L. (1976). Extract of Aloe: Scientific and clinical data. In Aloe Vera: New Scientific Discoveries by Max B. Skousen, 84-93.

Abstract: Gives properties of Aloe vera and discusses the use of Aloe in the treatment of various diseases.

Bowles, W. B. (n.d.). Medical aspects of Aloe. Melbourne, FL: Terry Laboratories.

Abstract: Present uses of aloe vera gel products, potential uses for aloe vera gel products, typical components found in the gel of aloe vera, harvesting, manufacturing and handling of aloe vera gel, new product development.

Capriotti, T. (1999, February 1). Exploring the ‘Herbal Jungle’. MedSurg Nursing.

Abstract: Discusses natural medicines in general with a some information specifically regarding Aloe vera.

Cheney, R. H. (1970). Aloe drug in human therapy. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research,10, 1523-1530.

Abstract: Briefly discusses history, botany, parts used and production, chemistry, medical evaluation and experimentation of Aloe as it relates to x-ray and other thermal injuries and skin diseases.

Chinchilla, N., Carrera C., Duran, A. G., Macias, M., Torres, A., and Macias, F. A. (2013). Aloe barbadensis: How a miraculous plant becomes reality. Phytochem Rev, 12, 581-602.

Abstract: Aloe barbadensis Miller is a plant that is native to North and East Africa and has accompanied man for over 5,000 years. The aloe vera plant has been endowed with digestive, dermatological, culinary and cosmetic virtues. On this basis, aloe provides a range of possibilities for fascinating studies from several points of view, including the analysis of chemical composition, the biochemistry involved in various activities and its application in pharmacology, as well as from horticultural and economic standpoints. The use of aloe vera as a medicinal plant is mentioned in numerous ancient texts such as the Bible. This multitude of medicinal uses has been described and discussed for centuries, thus transforming this miracle plant into reality. A summary of the historical uses, chemical composition and biological activities of this species is presented in this review. The latest clinical studies involved in vivo and in vitro assays conducted with aloe vera gel or its metabolites and the results of these studies are reviewed.

Choi, S., and Chung, M. (2003, March). A review of the relationship between Aloe vera components and their biologic effects. Seminars in Integrative Medicine, 1(1), 53-62.

Abstract: Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is a perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceal family, and is called the healing plant or the silent healer. As a result of its use as folk medicine, it is claimed that aloe vera has wound and burn healing properties, and anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Aloe vera is used in a variety of commercial products because of these therapeutic properties. It is being used as a whole extract, however, and the relationship between the components of the extract and its overall effect has not been clarified. A more precise understanding of the biologic activities of these is required to develop aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source. Many attempts have been made to isolate single, biologically active components, to examine their effects, and clarify their functional mechanism. This review focuses on the relationship between the isolated aloe vera components (ie, glycoproteins, anthraquinones, saccharides, low-molecular-weight substances) and their presumed pharmacologic activities.

Choi, H. C., Kim, S. J., Son, K. Y., Oh, B. J., and Cho, B. L. (2013). Metabolic effects of aloe vera gel complex in obese prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients: Randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, 29, 1110-1114.

Abstract: The metabolic effects of an aloe vera gel complex (Aloe QDM complex) on people with prediabetes or early diabetes mellitus (DM) are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Aloe QDM complex on body weight, body fat mass (BFM), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, and Homeostasis Model of Assessment – Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese individuals with prediabetes or early DM who were not on diabetes medications. Methods: Participants (n = 136) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 8 wk. Results: The study lost six participants in the control group and eight in the intervention group. At 8 wk, body weight (P = 0.02) and BFM (P= 0.03) were significantly lower in the intervention group. At 4 wk, serum insulin level (P= 0.04) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.047) were lower in the intervention group; they also were lower at 8 wk but with borderline significance (P = 0.09; P = 0.08, respectively). At 8 wk, FBG tended to decrease in the intervention group (P = 0.02), but the between-group difference was not significant (P = 0.16). Conclusion: In obese individuals with prediabetes or early untreated DM, Aloe QDM complex reduced body weight, BFM, and insulin resistance.

Clarke, J. (2004, April 25). The potted physician: Body foods by Britain’s leading nutrition expert. The Mail on Sunday. London, England.

Abstract: General discussion of how Aloe helps disease.

Cole, H. N. (MD), & Chen, K. K. (MD). (1943, February). Aloe vera in oriental dermatology. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 47, 250.

Abstract: Brief history of oriental dermatological use of Aloe.

Danhof, I. (n.d.). The fundamentals.

Abstract: Dr. Danhof is regarded by many as the leading authority on the Aloe vera plant. This paper gives the fundamentals of how the polysaccharide molecules help the body in the healing process.

Dweck, A. C. (1996, November). The past, present and future of botanicals: A scientific overview. IFSCC Conference, Plenary Lecture, Budapest, Hungary.

Abstract: The use of plants in medicine and in the cosmetic and toiletry industry is as old as man. Our certainty can only go back as far as the earliest recorded knowledge, but in those writings from ancient China and the time of the Egyptians we find countless references. Plants were used for everything from religious incense, to herbal medicine and cosmetics. Some of these old recipes are examined for their potential efficacy and to see whether we can substantiate their claims using today’s knowledge and experience. The paper considers a number of European preparations from the Middle Ages to the present day, examines the plants used and the phytochemicals responsible for their benefit. Typically (for the present day scenario) Aloe vera, Chamomile, and other plants used in modern medicine are discussed.

Dyniock, W. (1893). 1893 British pharmacographica indica on Aloe vera. pharmacographica Indica, 111, 467-472.

Abstract: This is a remarkable report on different species as published by the British in the history of principal drug vegetable origin that they found in India. Its century old origin makes it a collector’s item. It is not easy reading but has some interesting history.

Farkas, A. (1963). Topical medicament including polyuronide derived from Aloe. Chemical Abstracts, 60, 378g-379a. Patent on one of the active ingredients of Aloe vera, U.S. Patent No. 3,103,466, received on September 10, 1963. Claim was filed on December 23, 1954.

Abstract: The product, while quickly relieving pain, particularly from burns, appears thereby to have an analgesic and anesthetic effect; particularly in the type of healing rapidly promoted by the composition, it appears to have a detoxifying effect that may be the results of the reducing action inherent in the polyuronide without causing irritation, because burns, even second and third degree burns, become healed unusually rapidly, and the skin re-forms with rapid granulating, without scab formation.

Farnsworth, N. R., and Morris, R. W. (1976, March-April). Higher plants: The sleeping giant of drug development. American Journal of Pharmacy, 46-52.

Abstract: The main thrusts of this article are to point out the value of drugs derived form higher plants, to point out the importance of these drugs to physicians, and to suggest several reasons why higher plants essentially are being neglected in new drug development research programs.

Finbar, M. (2002, November 6). Health watch: Alternative path: Aloe, aloe – what’s all this then? The News Letter. Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Abstract: Lists some of the benefits of Aloe and also some of the 75 plus nutritional substances. “What is also apparent is that the plant itself is better than the sum of the individual components. In some way the synergistic balance out performs isolated components.”

Foster, S. (n.d.). Aloe vera: The succulent with skin-soothing, cell-protecting properties.

Abstract: general background and information on Aloe vera, specifically discussing aloe as an immuno-stimulator, tumor inhibitor, wound healer, cosmetic agent, and its use as a laxative as well as information on growing aloe vera.

Fujita, K., Beppu, H., Kawai, K., and Shinpo, K. (1992, Winter). Ancient herb in new form delivers proven effects. Aloe Today, 9-13.

Abstract: Discusses proven effects of Aloe vera in treating burns, gastric ulcers, and precancerous lesions.

Gale Group. (1998, November 1). Aloe vera: Actually two very different herbs in one. Environmental Nutrition.

Abstract: Aloe gel and juice are distinctly different, with different properties and uses.

Gjerstad, G., and Riner, T. D. (1968, March-April). Current status of Aloe as a cure-all. American Journal of Pharmacy, 140(2), 58-64.

Abstract: Dr. Gjerstad notes that the general public accepts much of what Aloe can do for them, but there needs to be more scientific studies done.

Hedendal, B. E. (n,d,). Super-Strength Aloe vera, almost a panacea: An overview of one of the most accepted, yet misunderstood, medicinal plans in history. Simply Natural Products.

Abstract: Discusses benefits of Aloe vera, especially cold processed.

Henry, R. (1979, June). An updated review of Aloe vera. Cosmetics & Toiletries,94(6), 42-50.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to update what is happening with the aloe vera plant in respect to history, current findings of the medical industry, identification of some of the compounds, commercial applications of extracts, safety data, and efficacy of extracts in cosmetics.

Horn, C. L. (1941). Botanical science helps to develop a new relief for human suffering. Journal of The New York Botanical Garden,42 (496), 88-92.

Abstract: Aloe is mentioned in relation to burns, diseases of the chest, wounds, ringworm, roundworm, as a purgative, X-ray burns, and other diseases.

Howe, M.. (1996, July 1). Nature’s cure-all: Aloe vera. Country Living.

Abstract: Aloe vera appears to be an all-around herbal cure for many ailments. These range from burns, insect bites and rashes to medical applications as eye drops, toothpaste and anti-inflammatory agents. Although scientific proof of and research into all of Aloe’s claims remain in their early stages, evidence of Aloe vera’s healing qualities is mounting. A specific section is written concerning Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Jelly F., Shanghai Office. (2002, September 5). Aloe vera a favoured natural ingredient in Shanghai life.

Abstract: Studies suggest that, in addition to its cosmetic properties, Aloe Vera can also be used in fighting cancer, bacteria and inflammation, reducing blood sugar and blood fat levels and healing wounds. No wonder the plant is so widely used in skin care, cosmetic, medical, healthcare and food products, and that Aloe products are popular in the market.

Jones, K.. (2008, February). Quenching free radicals with aloe vera. Virgo Publishing.

Abstract: Over the past two decades, skin care has advanced at a rate rivaling that of technology. Just as it used to be enough for skin care products to simply cleanse, tone, and moisturize. Those days are long gone. As baby boomers started showing the first signs of aging, they demanded more of their skin care products. They insisted on multi-tasking formulas that could reduce fine lines and wrinkles, firm sagging skin, and make dull complexions lustrous again.

Kavalier, F. (n.d.). A question of health: I can’t seem to get rid of the infection that is giving me a terrible cough. And how can I produce my own aloe vera juice at home? (Features) (Bug that won’t go away). The Independent London, England.

Abstract: Answers these questions.

Klein, L. (1993, March 1). Aloe vera: Au naturel. Vibrant Life.

Abstract: Use of aloe vera as a plant and includes some discussion on specific properties of the plant.

Langstone, A. (2000, February 19). Bitter truth: Aloe vera. The Epoch Times.

Abstract: Aloe vera is once again gaining the interest of researchers. Aloe means bitter in Arabic, and vera is Latin for truth.

Madis Laboratories, Inc. (n.d.). Veragel: Purified Aloe leaf extract derived from Aloe vera gel.

Abstract: History of aloe gel as well as its applications and uses.

Mortensson, C., and Hall, A. (2002, February 6). Twin treats: Natural healing powers of Aloe vera make it a super plant if you want to feel fine. Daily Record. Glasgow, Scotland.

Abstract: Discusses uses of both Aloe vera.

Murray, F. (1994, December). Aloe vera – Internal and external first aid. Better Nutrition for Today’s Living, 50-51.

Abstract: Reports on several studies on the use of Aloe vera to reduce various symptoms.

Murray, F. (1994, March). Therapy and treatment with Aloe vera. Better Nutrition, 52-55.

Abstract: Interesting uses and ways of use for aloe vera.

Nandal, U., and Bhardwaj, R. L. (2012, Mar-Apr). Aloe vera: A valuable wonder plant for food, medicine and cosmetic use: a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 13(1), 59-67.

Abstract: Aloe vera is a wonder plant with health benefits so myriad and astounding that hardly any part of human body remains uninfluenced by its healing touch. It acts as a natural fighter against all sorts of infection, an efficient anti-oxidant, helps in treating all digestion related problems, heartburn, arthritis, stress, diabetes, rheumatism pain, asthma, cancer, AIDS. It also acts as a laxative, beauty enhancer and studies have shown that it has an effect on lowering blood sugar levels in diabetics. Aloe has been proved to be a plant of amazing medicinal properties through researchers. The medicinal value of the plant is recognized since centuries because of the gel like pulp obtained by peeling its leaves. Its juice has cooling properties, is anabolic in action, a fighter of ‘pitta’, storehouse of phytochemicals and guards against fever, skin diseases, burns, ulcers, boils eruptions etc. Commercially, aloe can be found in pills, sprays, ointments, lotions, liquids, drinks, jellies, and creams, to name a few of the thousands of products available. In the present scenario, the aloe industry is blooming but the consumers are misguided leading to unfavourable outcome due to reasons like unawareness about its proper and adequate medicinal and health value, improper marketing and unavailability of processing units at farmer’s level, misleading hyped advertisement in cosmetic and health products. So, there is a burning need to educate about the importance of Aloe vera for human race and popularize it for greater interest.

Nicolaev, A. B. (1966). Aloe: Valuable medicinal plant. All Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(4), 51-53.

Abstract: Translation of a Russian article discussing indications and contra-indications of the use of sabur and aborescent Aloe.

NIH, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine. (2012, April). Aloe vera. Herbs at a Glance, pp 1-2.

Abstract: This fact sheet provides basic information about aloe vera: common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information.

Nordqvist, C. (2014, September 12). What is aloe vera? Medical News Today; Retrieved from

Abstract: Aloe vera, sometimes described as a “wonder plant”, is a short-stemmed shrub that only xoccurs in cultivation. It cannot be found in the wild. Some related Aloes occur naturally in North Africa. An Aloe is a genus containing more than 500 species of flowering plants.

Plaskett, L. G. (1998, January). The Health and Medical Use of Aloe Vera. Tacoma, Washington: Life Sciences Press.

Abstract: Dr. Plaskett found that hundreds of scientific papers had been published over the years by researchers all around the world: almost the whole of this large body of work contained only positive reports on the effectiveness of Aloe.

Plaskett, L. G. (1997). Aloe Vera: The Health Benefits. Tiverton, Devon, UK: Nutrigold Limited.

Abstract: Aloe vera is a succulent prickly plant of the Lily Family which grows in warm, frost-free climates and which has been known for centuries as a potent medicinal plant according to various cultures around the world.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, August). How to use Aloe vera in alternative medicine practice. Aloe Vera Information Services (newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera can easily be incorporated into practice in nutritional, naturopathy, herbalism, physiology, and within more orthodox practice. This newsletter examines the rationale that lies behind the use of Aloe in these contexts. It looks at what is involved in incorporating Aloe into practice, gives guidance on the types of product that are needed, and recommends a range of possible doses.

Plaskett, L. G. (1996, July). The healing properties of Aloe. Aloe Vera Information Services(newsletter). Camelford, Cornwall, UK: Biomedical Information Services Ltd.

Abstract: Aloe vera contains Glucomannan, a special complex polysacchride composed largely of the sugar mannose. It interacts with special cell-surface receptors on those cells that repair damaged tissues, called fibroblasts, stimulating them and activating their faster growth and replication. Plant hormones in Aloe, called auxins and gibberellins, also accelerate healing by stimulating cell replication. These combined actions make Aloe a uniquely potent healing herb.

Rateaver, B. (1978, July). The healing power of the Aloe vera. The Body Forum Magazine, 1(6).

Abstract: The list of experiences with healing by application of Aloe juice, gel or its preparations is very long. They are summarized and condensed.

Reynolds, G. W. (1966, September). The Aloes of Tropical Africa and Madagascar. Mbabane, Swaziland: The Aloes Book Fund.

Abstract: Book describes, illustrates, and discusses the different species of Aloe in Tropical Africa and Madagascar as well as their uses. For instance, Aloe aborescens works as well as Aloe barbadensis on x-ray burns.

Rudavsky, S. (2002, February 6). Aloe vera treats symptoms, but it’s not a cure-all. The Miami Herald (via Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service).

Abstract: General discussion of uses of Aloe vera as it treats symptoms of different types of disease.

Schauss, A. G. (1990). Aloe vera. Tacoma, WA: American Institute for Biosocial Research.

Abstract: An overview of aloe vera.

Schechter, S. R. (n.d.). (1994, February). Aloe vera: The healing plant. Health Foods Business, 23-24.

Abstract: General information about the benefits of Aloe vera.

Skousen, M. B. (1976). Russian Research Reports. Cypress, CA: Aloe Vera Research Institute.

Abstract: No other nation in the world has accomplished the intensive research on Aloe as has the USSR.

Spoerke, D. G., and Ekins, B. R. (1980, December). Aloe vera: Fact or quackery. Veterinary and Human Toxicology,22(6), 418-422.

Abstract: Overview and report on the popularity of Aloe vera.

Taylor, E. (2001, October 9). The prickly guardian of good health; Inside out. (Features). Daily Post Liverpool, England.

Abstract: General health benefits of Aloe vera use.

Tchou, M. T, (1943). Aloe vera (jelly leeks). Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 47, 249.

Abstract: Positive personal experience with Aloe in China and then again in the U.S. By combining discoveries and experiences, human life may yet be made better and happier.

Tizard, I. (2002, June 28). Examining the healing mystery of Aloe. Texas A&M University.

Abstract: General discussion of Aloe and possible reasons for its ability to help health.

Unknown. (1951). Aloe vera in the Philippines. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, Bureau of Printing, Manila.

Abstract: This brief section in the official book on plants in the Philippines gives a great many interesting bits of information about Aloe vera.

Unknown. (2004, September 13). Anatomy of an ingredient: Aloe vera. (Features). The Independent. London, England.

Abstract: Lists nutrients and substances of Aloe, its properties, and ways in which it can be used.

Vogler, B. K., and Ernest, E. (1999, October). Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. British Journal of General Practice, 49, 823-828.

Abstract: The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. Often general practitioners seem to know less than their patients about its alleged benefits. Aim: To define the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera, a popular herbal remedy in the United Kingdom. Method: Four independent literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, and the Cochrane Library. Only controlled clinical trials (on any indication) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. All trials were read by both authors and data were extracted in a standardized, pre-defined manner. Results: Ten studies were located. They suggest that oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced injuries. It might be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. Whether it promotes wound healing is unclear. There are major caveats associated with all of these statements. Conclusion: Even though there are some promising results, clinical effectiveness of oral or topical aloe vera is not sufficiently defined at present.

Wikipedia. (2015). Aloe vera.

Abstact: Aloe vera is a succulent plant species. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing, or soothing properties. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of Aloe vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies.

World Health Organization. (1999). WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume 1. Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract: Monographs on selected medicinal plants, including Aloe vera.

W. R. Sage, Inc. (1977, October). Aloe vera report.

Abstract: Addresses history, medicinal properties, toxicology, effects of Aloe vera powder on microorganisms, evaluation of Aloe vera, effects of Aloe vera liquid on microorganisms, effects of Aloe vera liquid on mycotic organisms, and what Aloe vera can do for you.

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